Nagarlok - Quarterly Journal of Urban Affairs
Current Volume: 55 (2023 )
Month(s) of Publication: March, June, September & December
Subject: Social Science
Nagarlok, a quarterly journal of Urban Affairs, is recognised under the UGC- Care list Group 1. It emphasis research and scholarly analysis on a range of urban themes: Urban life, metropolitan systems, city regions, urban planning and development, urban infrastructure, urban economy, urban environment and sustainability and urban policy. With a cutting-edge approach to linking theoretical development and empirical research, NAGARLOK encompasses key material from an unparalleled ranged of critical, comparative and geographic perspectives.
Director General, IIPA and Editor Associate Professor Professor, Urban Finance Professor, Housing School of Planning and Architecture Professor, e-Governance & ICT IIPA, Professor, Urban Governance Institute of Social Sciences Associate Professor Professor, Urban Management IIPA, Assistant Professor Director, NIUA IIPA
Surendra Nath Tripathi
(Urban and Regional Planning) CUS,
IIPA, New Delhi
IIPA, New Delhi
Public Administration IIPA,
Urban Development IIPA,
Professor, Urban Finance
Professor, Housing School of Planning and Architecture
Professor, e-Governance & ICT IIPA,
Professor, Urban Governance Institute of Social Sciences
Professor, Urban Management IIPA,
Volume 55 Issue
Jan- to Mar-2023
Urbanisation and Urban Planning in India: Problems and Prospects
By: Sreelekha R.G
Page No : 1-20
Urban people make up 31 per cent (Census 2011) of India's population overall, while metropolitan regions are home to 55 per cent of the world's population, which is projected to grow to five billion by 2028 and six billion by 2041. The overcrowded cities create stress on urban governance in India. However, it is widely acknowledged that local governments are very effective at managing pandemic situations because they are made up of residents of the same area and know one another better. This proximity also makes the local representatives more accountable and sensitive to local needs, which can help better mobilise the community for swift and coordinated action during disasters. As a result, urban planning in India received a boost during the Covid pandemic, which also enhanced the challenges and obligations of urban administration. The article makes an effort to revisit the issues and prospects of urbanisation and urban planning in India.
Sreelekha R.G. : Associate Professor (Collegiate Education Department, Government of Kerala) presently working in the Department of Political Science at University College, TVM.
Issues Regarding Infrastructure Provisions in Formal Private Sector Housing (FPSH) in Amritsar, Punjab, India
By: Gursharan Kaur , Ashwani Luthra
Page No : 21-40
During 1991, India pursued economic reforms and liberalised various economic sectors, housing was also one of them. The continued increment of urban population and limited public sector resources to fulfill the ever rising needs of the urbanites has been the mother land of private sector participation in the housing and infrastructure sector in the global and Indian market. The role of government started shifting from producer to enabler, facilitating and encouraging private sector participation in housing by enacting legislations and framing rules and regulations for the same. The primary objective behind an enabling strategy was to improve the performance of the housing sector as a whole. By the year 2020, 91 private sector approved housing colonies came up over 776.20 hectare area in the Amritsar city. More than two decades old Formal Private Sector Housing (FPSH) needs appreciation and appraisal for the kind of infrastructure that has been provided in the colonies of Amritsar city. The present paper helps to demarcate the success of FPSH in provision of infrastructure as per the
Act and guidelines of the state government as well as the evaluation of infrastructure existing in the formal private sector colonies both in quantitative and qualitative terms specific to Amritsar city.
Gursharan Kaur : Assistant Professor, Guru Ramdas School of Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Ashwani Luthra : Professor, Guru Ramdas School of Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mobility Patterns of Working Women using Delhi Metro
By: Monika Singh , Sanjay Gupta
Page No : 41-58
This research paper investigates the travel behaviour of working women using public transport, specifically the Delhi Metro, in the pre and duringCovid scenario. The study aims to provide insights into the challenges faced by women in accessing public transport and how the COVID-19 pandemic had affected their travel behaviour. The study was carried out by utilising a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods also known as a mixed-method approach. A survey was conducted to collect data on the travel behaviour of working women in Delhi, which included questions on their mode of transport, travel time, safety concerns, and preferences. According to the research, a notable percentage of employed women in Delhi depended on the Delhi Metro as their main means of transport both prior to and amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers used factor analysis to evaluate the key factors affecting the selection of public transportation modes during these two periods. A significant change was observed in the form of a transition from public transportation to private transportation and non-motorised methods. Overall, the present paper provides insights into the travel behaviour of working women using public transport in Delhi and highlights the need for policy measures to improve access and safety for women on public transport.
Monika Singh : PhD Scholar, Transport Planning Department, School of Planning & Architecture,New Delhi.
Sanjay Gupta : Dean (Research) & Dean (Faculty Welfare), Professor of Transport Planning Coordinator, Centre for Urban Freight Studies Coordinator, Centre for Shared and Electric Mobility, School of Planning and Architecture.
Unleashing Entrepreneurial Capabilities of Urban Poor: The Avenues in Day-NULM
By: Nagasuhasini R , Umajyothi V
Page No : 59-76
Urban poverty is one of the worst maladies. This study suggests the need to think beyond the traditional way of approaching poverty such as providing monetary assistance or in-kind transfers.Though employment opportunities have been included in the policy frameworks, implementing them without considering the right point of entry is indeed a huge mistake. The Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) is one such perspective that can be employed while framing policies to eliminate urban poverty. The approach helps in identifying the capabilities and vulnerabilities of the poor and thereby helps the countries to make the right point of entry. In India, the National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM) is one of the major efforts on the part of the government to eradicate urban poverty. The mission extends entrepreneurial opportunities to the urban poor. However, providing opportunities without building the right environment (capability enhancement and vulnerability reduction) will accelerate the implementation lapses. Hence, it becomes imperative to know whether the mission is capable of unleashing the entrepreneurial capabilities of the poor through the lens of the SL approach.
Nagasuhasini R : Research scholar, Department of Economics, Government College for Women,Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram.
Umajyothi V : Associate Professor & Head, Department of Economics, Government College for Women, Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram.
Bazar in Medieval India-Case of Amritsar
By: Sanjay Mishra , Sakshi Sahni
Page No : 77-100
Bazar plays an important role in the development of any town or city. Amritsar, medieval city of Punjab acted as a focal point as well as exchange of trade in various time periods. The research paper is an attempt to study the history of Amritsar, its evolution and phases of growth as well as depicting various bazars in the city of Amritsar. The main emphasis of the study is on Guru Bazar of Amritsar. The data has been collected through both primary as well as secondary sources using interview methods of the stakeholders majorly shopkeepers and the public opinion survey in case of primary sources. The secondary sources comprised mainly of reports, articles, government documents etc.
Sanjay Mishra : Research Scholar, Guru Ramdas School of Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India
Sakshi Sahni : Assistant Professor, Guru Ramdas school of Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.
Benefits of Campus Open Spaces in Higher Educational Institutes
By: Nupur Chichkhede , Abhijit Natu
Page No : 101-118
Campus open spaces play a vital role in providing good environment quality to the educational campuses. The natural green spaces and a relaxed atmosphere in open spaces encourage outdoor study discussions, meetings, and innovative learning. Well-designed campus landscapes can be effective to address challenges in the context of climate change. An online questionnaire was prepared and sent to the teaching and non-teaching staff of four colleges of an educational campus. Five types of services were identified from literature viz. Provisioning Services, Regulating Services, Socio-cultural Services, Information Services and Economic Services. Questionnaire contained closed ended questions on a “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” Scale of 1 to 5 Likert type scale was used, asking the respondents on whether the landscape of the campus helped in rendering the landscape service. The Factor Analysis was performed to identify the important services offered by landscape. The research findings suggested that the learning benefits were maximally received from the open spaces, followed by social benefits. These were found to be associated with the landscape characteristics of the open spaces. The hypothesis that the landscape services depend upon the landscape characteristics of the open spaces is tested in this single case study, however a large number of campuses need to be studied for generalisation.
Nupur Chichkhede : Ph. D. Scholar, Savitribai Phule Pune, University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Abhijit Natu : Associate Professor, BKPS College of Architecture, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
A Comparative Study on the Impact of Governance Practices Between Public and Private Urban Universities in the Telangana State
By: Srinivas Bangaru
Page No : 119-135
There has been an argument that self-financed Private Universities are familiar for their best performance from the perspective of policymakers. Several countries worldwide, including India, are dropping their share in funding Public Universities with a direction to generate their internal revenues for self-sustenance. Nearly after two decades, the prospects of Indian Public Higher Education remain the same resulting in the rise of private higher education. The present comparative study helps to identify the best governance practices in comparison with each other in terms of “accessibility, equity, affordability, quality and accountability” considered to be the five pillars of higher education by the Government of India. Based on the study results, important policy suggestions have been provided for improved quality higher education explicitly in Public Universities in India.
Srinivas Bangaru : Assistant Registrar, University of Hyderabad, India.
SMILE for Smart Cities: Making Urban Governance Inclusive in India
By: Gurram Ashok , D. Veerababu
Page No : 136-141
Gurram Ashok : Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, GSHS, GITAM Deemed University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
D. Veerababu : Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, School of Social Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Apr- to Jun-2023
Urban Pollution: Case for Encouraging Environmentally Responsible Behaviour
By: Meenakshi Dhote
Page No : 1-16
Urban areas are characterised by rising pollution levels due to concentration of secondary and tertiary activities, many of which are causative factors for air, water, noise pollution and contamination of land. If urbanisation is not managed well the build-up of polluted air, water and land would also be a rising concern. Pollution monitoring and management has been a matter of concern with many legislations, policies formulated to address the issue. Regulatory bodies such as Pollution Control Boards monitor and manage the pollution across the country. With the growing population and increased resource consumption, polluted water and land further deplete the availability of resources due to their impacts on health. An overview of the efforts in controlling pollution brings forth the need for a much more environmentally responsible behavior from the government, civil society and the individual. With concentration of human population, in many areas irrespective of its suitability, there is increased impact on resources, such as land, water, air and biotic resources. Pollution is one of the manifestations of resource degradation due to impact of urbanisation. Traditionally, urban settlements were planned in a way to cause minimal impact on nature. Efforts were made to protect prime agriculture land, forests, steep slopes and flood plains and were not built upon. This took care of land from getting degraded and any waste was within the assimilative capacity of the ambient air or water resource. Government of India has taken many steps to control pollution, both in urban and rural setting. However, the problem of pollution persists; and this is where a responsible environmental behavior seems lacking from the citizens and authorities. In spite of policies, legislation, and regulations, management and monitoring is inadequate. A responsible effort towards protection of resources yields results in controlling pollution.
Meenakshi Dhote : Professor and Head, Department of Environmental Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Towards Sustainable Policies: Harnessing the Potential of Strategic Environmental Assessment
By: Kusum Lata , Saurabh Bhatt
Page No : 17-38
Environmental policy is essential for addressing pressing environmental challenges and achieving sustainable development. In this context, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a systematic process that analyses and addresses the environmental impacts of policies, plans, programmes and other strategic initiatives. It goes beyond project-level Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and considers the cumulative effects of multiple actions and decisions. The paper aims to explain SEA, including its definitions and interpretations. It highlights the importance of integrating environmental considerations with economic and social factors and emphasizes SEA's role in supporting sustainable development. It also highlights the growing recognition of the need to consider environmental factors in decision-making processes. In conclusion, it underscores the significance of SEA as a proactive intervention in strategic decision-making processes.
Kusum Lata : Associate Professor (Urban & Regional Planning), Centre for Urban Studies, IIPA, New Delhi.
Saurabh Bhatt : Pursuing PG from School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi.
Environment Sustainability and Urban Planning High Dividend of Having Urban Child Database
By: Kanchan Dyuti Maiti , Debolina Kundu
Page No : 39-49
The global urban population is expanding by 220,000 inhabitants every day or 80 million per year. Approximately a decade ago, the world officially became a majority urban planet. Along with urbanisation a great deal of human progress has come to pass, including great leaps in child survival and development. Data show that on average, compared to their rural peers, urban children have access to better essential services such as health care and education, water and sanitation, energy.1
This is in part due to factors associated with the so-called ‘urban advantage’. On average at a macro level, urban households earn higher incomes, benefit from improved infrastructure, have better education and reside in greater proximity to services. A closer look at the granular evidence, however, suggests that not all urban children are benefiting equally, and that the urban advantage for children is an overgeneralisation. Although on average, an urban advantage can be seen for most indicators, the urban advantage is not identical for most indicators and the urban population does not fare better in all countries.
“UNICEF’s global analysis shows that virtually every child is already exposed to disruptive climate hazards. One billion children – nearly half of the world’s total child population – are at ‘extremely high risk’ due to a deadly combination of high exposure to climate hazards and insufficient essential services to help them cope. “Climate change is also inextricably linked to water and food insecurity – to which children are especially vulnerable. Around the world, 450 million children live in areas of high, or extremely high, water vulnerability, while 27 million children under five years are facing severe food insecurity linked to drought. “At its heart, theclimate crisis is a child rights crisis. And it is robbing children of their health and homes, their cultures and way of life, and their futures.
One of the key recommendations of the evaluation, that has been accepted by UNICEF in its management response, is as follows: "In partnership with sister United Nations agencies, strengthen advocacy for child-responsive urban planning, participatory slum upgrading, safe public spaces for children and child-friendly transportation systems, and issues around urban waste and environmental degradation."2 However, for actuation of this would need measuring the various aspects impacting child development in the urban areas and measures of child's deprivation and vulnerability. This opens a whole new frontier of work for UNICEF and calls for a need to consolidate the work around the issues and other UN agencies, the Govt. and NGOs to be more strategic urban programming for environment, urbanisation and planning.
Though urban residents on average enjoy better access to services and opportunities, a substantial part of the urban population is being left behind. Intra-urban disparities can be so large that many of the most disadvantaged children and their families in urban areas fare worse than those in rural areas. For example, the poorest urban children in 1 in 4 countries are more likely to die before their fifth birthday than the poorest children in rural areas. And the poorest urban children in 1 in 6 countries are less likely to complete primary school than their counterparts in rural areas. This reversal of the ‘urban advantage’ is called the ‘urban paradox’3.
Kanchan Dyuti Maiti : Independent Researcher on Data Systems & Management, earlier working in UNICEF, India.
Debolina Kundu : Professor, National Institute of Urban Affairs.
Awareness on Sustainable Municipal Services
By: Akshaya Kumar Sen
Page No : 50-61
Creating awareness on sustainable municipal services hold the key for making informed decisions about the allocation of resources, infrastructure development, and the delivery of services to the residents. The urban local bodies are also directly responsible for the achievement of more than twothird of parameters of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The functions and services provided by municipal governments are, therefore, vital for creating healthy, livable and sustainable communities. This paper highlights various benefits of creating awareness and suggests strategies for creating such awareness for sustainable municipal services. The paper also briefly discusses some of the flagship programmes of the Government of India to promote sustainable municipal services by encouraging municipalities to adopt sustainable practices, through creating awareness among all stakeholders and promote behavior change, apart from providing financial support for sustainable development.
Akshaya Kumar Sen : General Manager (Eco.), Housing & Urban Development Corporation Ltd (HUDCO), New Delhi
Potential Financing Mechanism for Greening Indian Urban Local Bodies
By: Shantanu Srivastava , Saurabh Trivedi
Page No : 62-68
This article discusses the challenges Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India face in financing climate mitigation and adaptation projects, despite their critical role in addressing climate change. To address these challenges, the article presents potential financing mechanisms for Indian ULBs to finance their low-carbon infrastructure needs. These mechanisms include municipal green bonds, aggregation models, risk mitigation facilities and carbon credit trading. The article provides examples of such mechanisms used by ULBs in India or abroad and addresses existing policy gaps and capacity issues to ensure the effective use of these mechanisms by Indian ULBs.
Shantanu Srivastava : Affiliated with the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA). Working as the Sustainable Finance and Climate Risk lead for IEEFA South Asia. Also, co-authored this paper along with Saurabh Trivedi who works as an Energy Finance Analyst with IEEFA Asia Pacific.
Saurabh Trivedi : Energy Finance Analyst, IEEFA.
Shades of Culture in Post-Industrial Landscapes
By: Manu Mahajan
Page No : 69-78
From the 1970s onward, cities in Western Europe and North America started seeing significant structural changes in the economy related to the shift of manufacturing (a post-industrial phase of city reorganization) to parts of South East Asia, South Asia, and other parts of the globe. As per the literature, post-industrial is essentially Western European and North American context specific. Neo-liberal urban agenda is one such prism through which one can understand the steps taken by the cities to address the post-industrial conditions leading to the redevelopment and marketisation of urban landscapes with numerous shades of cultural economy. This paper briefly touches on the literature of post-industrialisation and instruments of the neo-liberal agenda in the beginning before looking at the cases from North America, Western Europe, and South-east Asia from the perspective of urban transformation in post-industrial urban landscapes. The core of these cases is to look at diverse shades of the cultural economy and how cities absorbed these shades in the built environment. The second half of the paper presents cases from Indian cities to examine the transformation from the dimensions of cultural economy. In conclusion, the author argues about the additional roles of designers and planners in re-creating the post-industrial landscapes not only from the perspective of aesthetics and real estate but also addressing issues of public wealth, equity, and enhancement of the public realm.
Manu Mahajan : Head of the Department of Urban Design, School of Planning and Architecture (SPA), New Delhi.
Championing Local Priorities in Urban Areas
By: K. K. Pandey
Page No : 79-88
Championing local priorities has been a part of urban policy agenda in India since enactment of 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) of 1993 covering continuity in the elected body, reservation to women and weaker sections and creation of ward committees. Yet, the process of decentralisation got stuck at town hall level and could not move below up to grass root level. Local councils in Aizawl (Mizoram) present a model to take the process of decentralisation to a common man in the remote part of city structure. These are first ever elected bodies in India representing 1500 people at grass root level.
Further, the local councils are an intermediary link institution in a multipronged context covering (i) ward committee, (ii) city government (iii) state departments, and local authorities. This makes the governance inclusive and participatory with special thrust on Jan Bhagidari (People’s Partnership). Local councils also have unique feature of Hnatlang meaning a customary service covering labour, financial contribution and management responsibility. In addition, optimum synergy and convergence are achieved on public sector schemes and programs.
The model presents citizen participation to access basic services covering common space, management of parks, gardens, play grounds, water bodies) ,(iii) waste management (iv) essential consumer durables (Cooking Gas, Ration), addressing forest fire, retaining walls, local markets, public conveniences etc. , collection of municipal revenue (waste collection charges, property taxes) and (vii) local inputs for city level planning. Finally, Legal and institutional framework of local councils needs wider assessment and adaptation in the overall city size framework in in India and elsewhere.
K. K. Pandey : Professor Coordinator, Centre for Urban Studies, IIPA.
Reinventing Governance and Planning Frameworks: Hyderabad Metrorail Case Study Learnings of LVC and VGF
By: Anjula Negi , Bodhishotto Bhattacharjee
Page No : 89-114
Hyderabad metrorail project is globally one of the largest Public-PrivatePartnership in urban/metrorail segment. First project worldwide to successfully receive viability gap funding and incorporate few aspects of land value capture. Multifold learnings from it can be adapted for urban governance, development and planning for newer metrorails. Authors put forth project’s nuances in this paper alongside key tenets of developmental journey, which is replete with its share of success and failures. Commercial operations commenced in November 2017 despite several hurdles. Vital learnings are that metrorails remain highly capital intensive, complex and time-consuming works, and failures/misses can add to time and cost. To overcome odds, thorough and robust groundwork is required at the onset. Numerous implementation challenges coupled with litigation and turmoil amidst creation of a new state were noted for Hyderabad metro. Change of alignment request by new political formation consequent to state’s bifurcation and delays in land acquisition crucial to construction work were issues dealt by concessionaire. Creating a financially viable structure to sustain an optimum equity return throughout concession period is one of the biggest challenge to project structuring. Fare box revenues alone were largely deemed insufficient for recovery of capital even in the long-term. Financial sustenance during operations is also under question. Success ensuing its creation is spearheaded by a superior project structure, effective project management, tenacious implementation framework and dedicated anchor assuming leadership for multi-stakeholder coordination and approvals, noted from experts. Success equally equally befalls in publics’ usage of services too, given that travel demand is being met with last-mile convenience and comfort.
Anjula Negi : Senior infrastructure advisor and research scholar at SPA New Delhi.
Bodhishotto Bhattacharjee : Independent consultant.
Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in Housing Sector — A Study of Impact of Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016
By: Sapna Chadah , Amit Kumar Singh
Page No : 115-132
Shelter is one of the three basic requirements of humans, along with food and clothes. Food is necessary for human survival, but housing also offers security and influences one's quality of life. Buying a house is the dream of every person. Significantly, housing is the most expensive basic need for human beings. People spend all of their life savings on a home. To further add to the misery, builders/promoters are cheating home buyers in various ways like builder-buyer agreements favouring the builder, and materials used for construction found to be of poor quality. Builders deviate from the promises made in the agreement, possession is not given even after full payment is made by the buyers. Every day it comes to the news that thousands of home buyers are stranded due to the corrupt practices of builders/developers. In view of the above, the Central government enacted the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA) to protect the interest of home buyers and bring uniformity and standardisation of business practices and transactions in the real estate sector. It aims to bring greater accountability towards consumers and tries to reduce fraud and delays in housing projects. However, even after six years of passage of RERA, effective implantation across all states still remains a concern. Therefore, it is vital to analyse the existing dispute resolution mechanism under the RERA. The research paper tries to analyse the impact of the new regulator for the housing sector, the lacunae in the implementation of the Act and how the present structure can be made more effective in fast track dispute resolution.
Sapna Chadah : LL.M, Ph.D Assistant Professor (Administrative & Constitutional Laws), Indian Institute of Public Administration, I. P. Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi.
Amit Kumar Singh : Assistant Professor (Urban Management), Indian Institute of Public Administration, I. P. Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi.
Locating U20 Agenda in Urban Governance in India
By: Sachin Chowdhry
Page No : 133-148
Climate change has emerged as a very serious threat and is affecting people all over the globe in one way or the other. Concerted efforts need to be made at all levels—global, national and local, for mitigation and adaptation. City level efforts need support from the other stakeholders, in most of the cases. They are constrained by lack of different types of resources. To articulate such concerns, different types of groups have emerged with linkages to several networks. U20 is one such group, which recommends action-areas concerning cities to the G20, group of twenty countries with major contribution to the global economy.
India is a member of G20 and has been participating in its meetings over the years and is also affected adversely by climate change effects. This paper is an attempt to understand that how the cities in India are placed to engage in the climate action efforts, especially concerns raised by U20 over the years. The analysis covers the opportunities as well as constraints of city level institutions. The paper also looks at as to what priority has been given to the cities by the national government in facing climate challenges.
Sachin Chowdhry : Associate Professor, (Public Administration), Centre for Urban Studies, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
This is intended as a guide for authors submitting a manuscript to NAGARLOK and as an aid to the preparation of the final copy of accepted articles.
• Manuscript should be in MS Word format. This should include the name, email ID and the institutional affiliation of the author(s).
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Table and Figures
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