The Journal of Plant Science Research - A UGC Care-Listed Journal

Published in Association with Forum For the Promotion of Plant Science Research

Current Volume: 40 (2024 )

ISSN: 0970-2539

e-ISSN: 0976-3880

Periodicity: Tri-annual

Month(s) of Publication: April, August & December

Subject: Botany

DOI: 10.32381/JPSR

Online Access is Free for Life Member


The Journal of Plant Science Research is a reputed peer reviewed International Journal which is published Tri-Annual. This Journal disseminates knowledge in all related fields of Plant Science Research such as Plant Physiology, Agriculture, Bio-Chemistry and Botany. It imparts the latest advances in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering which is proved beneficial for the upcoming Geneticists, Plant Physiologists, Botanists, Biochemists and Biotechnologists. It regularly supplies the latest information on researchers, education, publication, and projects on Plant Science at national and international levels.

A UGC Care-Listed Journal
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
Genamics (JournalSeek)
Indian Citation Index (ICI)


Prof. Ashwani Kumar

University of Rajasthan,

Dr. P. C. Trivedi

Formerly Vice-Chancellor,
Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur
M.D.S. University, Ajmer
DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur
Dr. R.M.L. Avadh University, Faizabad
Maharaja Ganga Singh University, Bikaner, Rajasthan
Former Head, Botany and Biotechnology, 
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

Vice President
Dr. Rakesh Pandey

CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP)

Prof. N K Dubey

FNASc, FNAAS, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University,

Founder Chief Editor
Late Prof. C P Malik

FNA, Noida

Editorial Board
Dr. Krishnendu Mukherjee

Senior Scientist, Nuenster 48149, 

Prof. Shinjiro Ogita

Prefectural, University of Hiroshima
Hiroshima, Japan

Prof. Yuan-Yeu Yau

Northeastern State University,
Broken Arrow,
Oklahoma, USA

Prof. H N Verma

JNU, Jaipur

Volume 40 Issue 1 , (Jan-2024 to Apr-2024)


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Phytochemical Profiling of Coconut Haustorium by HR LC-MS MS QToF Analysis

By: Mahesh S , Manju Manoharan , Bindu R. Nair , Laija S. Nair ,

Page No : 1-7

Cocos nucifera L. is a member of the Arecaceae family cultivated throughout tropical regions and it provides food, fuel, cosmetics, traditional medicines and building materials. Coconuts are well known for their medicinal and nutritional benefits and are considered to be very valuable plants. One of the lesser utilized edible products of the coconut palm is the coconut haustorium. The aim of the present study was to identify the phytoconstituents of coconut haustorium using HR LC-MS MS QToF Analysis. The major compounds identified through HR- LC MS were Quinic acid, Scopolin, Azelaic acid, BetaChacotriosyllilagen, Butoctamide hydrogen succinate, Icaceine, Convallagenin A, and Norrubrofusarin 6-betagentiobioside.

Manju Manoharan :
 Post graduate and Research Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Mahesh S. :  Post graduate and Research Department of Botany, Christian College, Kattakada, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Bindu R. Nair : Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Laija S. Nair : Post graduate and Research Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.



Price: 251

Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Fruit Extract of Anthocephalus Cadamba.

By: Kumar Abhishek , Kumar Avinash ,

Page No : 8-14

Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba), also known as Kadamb, is a fast-growing tree species found in tropical and subtropical regions of South China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. This plant has been traditionally used in folk medicine for centuries due to its various medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antibacterial activities of fruits of A. cadamba extracts using the Poisoned Food Technique and the Disc Diffusion Antibacterial Test. The results of poisoned food technique showed that the methanol extract exhibited the highest antifungal activity among the tested extracts, followed by the ethanolic and acetonic extracts. In the Disc Diffusion tests, the test samples displayed varying degrees of antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus. These findings highlight the potential of A. cadamba as a source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further research is needed to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for these activities and to explore their mechanisms of action and its use in healthcare applications.

Kumar Abhishek : Research Scholar, Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.
Kumar Avinash : Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.


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Phytochemical Analysis of Rubus fockei Utilized in the Ethnomedicinal Traditions of the Kodagu District and its Cytotoxicity Evaluation on Hep G2 Cell Line

By: Ashitha Ganesh B. , M. P. Raghavendra , A. G. Devi Prasad ,

Page No : 15-25

Among the numerous medicinal plant species growing in the wild, vaale pann or taxonomically the Rubus fockei sp. occupies its unique place in the traditional knowledge of Kodagu district in Western Ghats. In the present study, phytochemical screening of methanolic, and aqueous extracts of the leaves has revealed the presence of 12 different phytocompounds. Anticancer activity of both the extracts revealed significant inhibitory activity against HepG2 cell lines. HPLC analysis of the aqueous and methanolic extracts gave peaks at retention times 15.47, 34.44 and 21.541, 34.382, 34.677 respectively. LC-MS spectra of extracts of Rubus fockei from aqueous extract showed the presence of six compounds in the positive ion mode and nine compounds in the negative ion mode while the methanol extract showed the presence of 19 compounds in positive ion mode and 24 compounds in the negative ion mode. FTIR analysis of methanolic and aqueous extract revealed the presence of about 17 functional groups. The present study showed that extracts of Rubus fockei leaves possess anticancer properties, which could be explored further for pharmaceutical applications.

Ashitha Ganesh B. : Department of Studies in Environmental Science, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
M. P. Raghavendra : Postgraduate Department of Microbiology, Maharani’s Science College for Women Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
A. G. Devi Prasad​​​​​​​ : Department of Studies in Environmental Science, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.


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Identification and Molecular Authentication of Anisochilus scaber Benth. and Anisochilus Kanyakumariensis Shinoj & Sunojk. from Western Ghats, India

By: Farsana Salah S. , Suma M. , Suresh Kumar U. , Geetha Mini D. , Hyzil J.B. , Jayachithra S.K. , Viji V. ,

Page No : 26-31

Anisochilus Wall. ex Benth is a genus of Lamiaceae family which includes medicinally and ethnobotani- cally important species like A. carnosus. It is a taxonomically significant genus because of its close similarity in morphological characters. There exists difficulty in identification of the species due to similar morphology. The present study attempts to molecularly validate two species of the genus, A. scaber and A. kanyakumariensis. from the Western Ghats of India using chloroplast (rbcL) and nuclear (ITS2) regions. In both species, rbcL works efficiently, however the ITS2 primer yielded no results. Gene sequences were submitted in NCBI. Evolutionary relationship of subtribe plectranthinae using Neighbour-Joining method is also discussed here.

Farsana Salah S. : Department of Botany, Govt. College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Suma M. : Department of Botany, Sree Ayyappa College for Women, Chunkankadai, Nagerkovil, Tamil Nadu, India.
Suresh Kumar U. : Regional Facility for DNA Fingerprinting (RFDF), Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Geetha Mini D. : Department of Botany, Govt. College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Hyzil J.B. : Department of Zoology, Govt. College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Jayachithra S.K. : Department of Zoology, Govt. College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Viji V. : Department of Botany, Govt. College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.


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In vitro Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Extracts from Selected Medicinal Plants Against Distinct Human Cancer Cell Lines

By: Anil Kumar H. S. , Kotresha D. ,

Page No : 32-41

In this current study, in pursuit of novel anti-cancer alternative medicines, four medicinal plant extracts were investigated for phytochemical screening and in vitro cytotoxicity studies, and the most potent cytotoxic extract was utilised for qualitative analysis. For preliminary phytochemical screening, three phytochemical extracts, namely ethyl acetate extract (EAE), methanol extract (ME), and distilled water extract (DWE), of four plants, namely Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., and Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corr., were screened, and the same were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay against four cell lines: namely Human Colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT 116), Human Hepatocellular adenocarcinoma (HepG2), Human lung carcinoma (NCIH-460), and Human Prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3). The presence of several phytochemicals was identified during the phytochemical screening. All IC50 values mentioning 17.50 and 29.47 μg/ml of EAE of A. bracteolata were found to have the strongest anticancer activity against NCIH-460 and HCT-116 cell lines, respectively. The EAE at IC50 of 17.50 μg/ml accounts for about 30 compounds after a qualitative GC-MS study, and it includes anticancer chemicals such as pentadeconic acid, phytol, phenol-2,4-bis 1,1-dimethylethyl, 2,6,10-trimethyl-14-ethylene-14-pentadecene, phytol-acetate, and others. The extract of ethyl acetate from A. bracteolata strongly suppressed the growth of malignant cell lines NCIH-460 and HCT-116 and included many physiologically active chemicals. This could be the first evidence of the antitumor efficacy of A. bracteolata in lung and colorectal cancer screening.

Anil Kumar H. S. : Department of Studies in Botany, Davangere University, Shivagangothri, Davangere, Karnataka, India.
Kotresha D.: Department of Studies in Botany, Davangere University, Shivagangothri, Davangere, Karnataka, India.


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Functional Characterization of OsbHLH185 Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis Under Abiotic Stresses

By: Roshan K. V. Remesh , Jyothish Madambikattil Sasi , Biju Dharmapalan , Dhanya D. S. ,

Page No : 42-49

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play a pivotal role in governing various cellular processes associated with growth, development, and stress responses in plants. The current investigation aimed to conduct a functional characterization of a rice bHLH transcription factor gene, OsbHLH185, under several abiotic stress conditions, namely salt stress, mannitol stress, cold stress, and the application of abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic Arabidopsis lines of OsbHLH185 were produced by over expression techniques and afterward employed for the investigation of stress response. The phenotypic, morphometric, and physiological parameters of the over-expression lines were assessed in the context of abiotic stressors. The transgenic plants with over-expression lines demonstrated a notable increase in tolerance to abiotic stress in comparison to the non-transgenic wild-type plants. The OsbHLH185 over expression lines had increased levels of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED3 and signaling genes, which may be the cause of the phenotype of abiotic stress tolerance. The findings of this initial study can serve as a valuable resource for future investigations, while the utilization of OsbHLH185 in breeding research holds potential for the enhancement of abiotic stress tolerance in crop species.

Roshan K. V. Remesh : Department of Biotechnology, Sree Narayana Arts & Science College, Kumarakom, Kerala, India.
Jyothish Madambikattil Sasi : CSIR-National Institute of Science Communication and Policy Research (NIScPR), 14, Satsang Vihar Marg, New Delhi, India.
Biju Dharmapalan : School of Natural Sciences and Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Dhanya D. S. : Department of Botany, Sree Narayana College for Women, Kollam, Kerala, India.


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Systematic Study of Four Cash Crop Taxa of Piper L. From South West Bengal, India Based on Morphometric Analysis

By: Amal Kumar Mondal , Santanu Dash , Sayantan Tripathi ,

Page No : 50-61

A comparative study on the basis of detailed morphological characters of four species of Piper L., viz. - Piper betle L., Piper nigrum L., Piper longum L. and Piper retrofractum Vahl., from southern districts of West Bengal, India was performed to draw a systematic conclusion. Both qualitative and quantitative morphological traits were considered. The usefulness of potential morphometric features was identified. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Multivariate Cluster Analysis (UPGMA) were used in establishing a systematic interrelationship among the taxa under study. In this study, potential morphometric traits were identified which were valuable in classifying these taxa. This study found highest level of similarity between P. longum L. and P. retrofractum Vahl., whereas, Pnigrum L. has least affinity with other three taxa.

Santanu Dash: Plant Taxonomy, Biosystematics and Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory, UGC-DRS-SAP & DBT-BOOST-WB Supported Department, Department of Botany & Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
Sayantan Tripathi: Plant Taxonomy, Biosystematics and Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory, UGC-DRS-SAP & DBT-BOOST-WB Supported Department, Department of Botany & Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
Amal Kumar Mondal: Plant Taxonomy, Biosystematics and Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory, UGC-DRS-SAP & DBT-BOOST-WB Supported Department, Department of Botany & Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.


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Effect of Chromium Oxide on the Growth Efficiency of Phormidium autumnale (Agardh)

By: S. Bagampriyal , B. Sadhana

Page No : 62-69

Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of photosynthetic procaryotic organisms grow well in different environments. They have an ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. It can grow in heavy metal polluted environment by adsorbing the metal ions from the surrounding aquatic system. The present study analyzed the effect of chromium oxide concentrations on the growth of Phormidium autumnale by estimating the photosynthetic efficiency and physiological tolerance of organisms. Phormidium autumnale was isolated from the paddy field soil of Sakkimangalam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu by using Blue green algal medium. It was treated with various concentrations of chromium oxide from 0.1ppm to 1ppm and estimating the photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanins and total nitrogen, protein and ammonia excretion in the culture medium. This study reported that the various concentrations of such chromium ions enhanced the photosynthetic and physiological efficiency of Phormidium autumnale and was well grown at the low concentrations of chromium ions. It was confirmed by estimating its photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, protein content and ammonia excretion by the algal cells at various concentrations of chromium oxide. Its higher concentration affected the Phormidium growth when compared to control. This organism showed metal tolerance against the lower concentrations of Chromium oxide. Thus, this work has suggested that the application of cyanobacteria: Phormidium species distribution in the paddy field soil pretentiously fixed atmospheric nitrogen and showed the tolerance effect against the various applications of agro-chemicals with heavy metals generally applied in crop fields. The novelty of the work stated that the Cyanobacteria Phormidium showed metal tolerance against the chromium oxide at lower concentrations in aquatic medium.

S. Bagampriyal : Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
B. Sadhana : P.G Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.


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In vitro Propagation of a Dendrobium Hybrid (D. Apichart Rainbow x D. bigibbum var. compactum): An Important Orchid used for Potted Flowers

By: Johnnita Tirkey , Nihar Ranjan Nayak ,

Page No : 70-78

Dendrobium hybrid orchids are widely used for potted flowers as well as for cut flowers. In this study, the Dendrobium hybrid (D. Apichart Rainbow x D. bigibbum var. compactum) widely used as the potted f lower because of the unique flower qualities was used. Availability of the planting materials is the major constraint for which the use of tissue culture technology is highly essential. Seed pods were formed through hand pollination on the plants growing at the orchidarium and mature seeds were brought to the laboratory. After surface sterilization and culturing on Murashige and Skoog’s (1962) medium for germination and further seedling development. Effects of different plant growth regulators on the seed germination were thoroughly analysed, and it was found that the seeds on BAP 0.25 mg/l showed the highest rates (90. 52%) of germination at 90 days of culture. On the same medium, at 18 months of culture healthy seedlings were formed, each had 2.0 roots and 3.0 leaves. The seedlings reached a height of 4cm at 18 months of culture. The young shoots produced on BAP 0.5 mg/l were used as the explants for the production of new shoots. The inclusion of BAP 2.5 mg/l showed the highest production of 15.0 shoots from each explant. The new shoots were transferred to MS nutrient medium containing 2.0 mg/l IBA for efficient root induction in which each shoot produced 4.33 numbers of roots at 180 days of culture. In vitro, raised shoots were successfully acclimated in the greenhouse for further growth and development.

Johnnita Tirkey : Regional Plant Resource Centre, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Nihar Ranjan Nayak : Regional Plant Resource Centre, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.


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Pharmacognostic Standardization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke Leaves

By: Darshana Patil , Ria P. Mathew , Avinash Patil ,

Page No : 79-87

Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke, commonly known as ‘Kapoori Tulsi’ in Hindi and ‘Camphor Basil’ in English is a traditional medicinal plant belonging to Family Lamiaceae. The leaves of this plant are aromatic and are being traditionally used for the treatment of several ailments like cold and cough, abdominal pains, measles, diarrhoea etc. The rise in the use of plants like Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke in herbal products, has also given rise to various forms of abuse and adulteration of the products. Therefore, it is essential to assess their quality and purity. The present research work is an attempt to establish quality control parameters for Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke leaves so that it could be useful in setting some diagnostic parameters for the correct identification, standardization and preparation of monograph. Standardization was carried out in terms of pharmacognostic, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical analysis. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated presence of various phytoconstituents like flavonoids, glycosides, mucilage, resins, tannins etc.

Darshana Patil : Department of Botany, Smt. C.H.M. College, Ulhasnagar, Maharashtra, India.
Ria P. Mathew : Department of Botany, B.K. Birla College, Kalyan, Maharashtra, India.
Avinash Patil : Department of Botany, B.K. Birla College, Kalyan, Maharashtra, India.


Price: 251

FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS based investigation of Urtica dioica L. roots methanol extract corroborate its usage in traditional orthopedic medicine of Darjeeling hills, West Bengal, India

By: Chandan Naskar , Projjwal Chandra Lama ,

Page No : 88-102

Plants used for medicinal purposes have been used for thousands of years, and are well-known for their efficacy in a variety of treatments. Numerous plants used for medicinal purposes were identified and studied for their biochemical profile and characterized for finding functional groups. Urtica dioica L., with a common name Sishnu, belong to the family of Urticaceae. It is used traditionally to treat bone fracture healing and lowering the high blood pressure. The GC-MS analysis was carried out with methanolic extracts of Urtica dioica L. and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR) analysis was done with dried Urtica dioica L. root powder. A total of 74 phytochemical constituents have been identified by comparing the chromatogram peak values of unknown compounds with entries in NIST database. The major bioactive compounds found in the extract, which acts on orthopedic healing treatment were Dodecanoic acid, Tetradecanoic acid, Diethylene glycol monolaurate, Octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Hexaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, Tetradecanoic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, Methyl tetradecanoate, 15-Crown-5, 2,5,8,11-Tetraoxatridecan-13-yl benzoate, Hexaethylene glycol, TBDMS derivative, Octadecanoic acid and 2-Hydroxyethyl ester. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of amines, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, alkylhalides, organic chloride, aliphatic amines and amide groups. The detailed investigation done with these processes helps in screening active compounds from plants which lead to further discovery of new drugs. Hence, this study offers fundamentals of employing Urtica dioica L. as herbal alternative for the treatment of orthopedic injuries.

Chandan Naskar : Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Botany, Darjeeling Government College, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.
Projjwal Chandra Lama : Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Botany, Darjeeling Government College, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.


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Biochemical Changes and Oxidative Stress Responses in Allium cepa L. affected by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

By: Rameena K Jamal , Vimala Jose ,

Page No : 103-111

The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has a positive influence on the food industry along with opening a new area of research in agroecosystems. In this paper, Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2 O3 ) nanoparticles (FeO NPs) were treated with onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds at various concentrations (1mM to 100mM) to investigate the effects on biochemical parameters, photosynthetic traits, and oxidative stress responses of seedlings. FeO-NPs were characterized using UV-Vis Spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Positive effects were observed in seed germination and the growth of seedlings at lower NPs concentrations. The germination percentage, photosynthetic pigments, and nutritional contents of seedlings were enhanced by 5 mM to 10 mM NPs treatments, also significant decrease in the parameters was not observed at higher concentrations. Antioxidant enzyme studies which could throw light on the toxicity of NPs indicated that FeO-NPs at high levels resulted in lower stress rates whereas the low to moderate concentrations of FeO-NPs were beneficial to the plants. In general, the results indicated that FeO-NPs at low concentrations (5mM) could be useful for onion germination, growth, and biomass production. An increase in the content of antioxidant enzymes at higher concentrations of FeO-NPs pointed towards the plant defence mechanisms against oxidative stress induced by FeO NPs at high (50mM) concentrations. The study gives the effects of Iron oxide nanoparticles on growth, photosynthetic traits, and biochemical parameters of onion seedlings.

Rameena K Jamal : Department of Botany, KKTM Govt. College, Kodungallur, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
Vimala Jose : Centre for Bionanotechnology, Research and Post Graduate Department of Botany, St. Thomas’ College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.


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Ethno Medicinal Plants Used For Fertility and Menstrual Disorders in Challakere, Karnataka

By: Kotresha D. , Virupaksha T.R. ,

Page No : 112-118

The present study was conducted in our study area Challakere taluk, Karnataka; rural pockets are covered in different sessions and tribal information on medicinal plants and their use. The tribal health healers of Challakere taluk, Chitradurga, Karnataka, are poor in education. A total of 23 medicinal plant species belonging to 15 families were recorded; Fabaceae has the highest number of species followed by Malvaceae, Euphorbiacae, Moraceae, and Lamiaceae, Capparidaceae. The Capparis zeylanica is the most effective plant used in Challakere taluk. The information by tribal health healers is very scientific, so many research articles and journals publish the same plants.

Virupaksha T.R.  : Department of Studies in Botany, Davangere University, Shivagangothri, Tholahunase, Davangere, Karnataka, India.
Kotresha D. : Department of Studies in Botany, Davangere University, Shivagangothri, Tholahunase, Davangere, Karnataka, India.


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Studies on the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of the Andrographis serpyllifolia (Rottler ex Vahl) Wight

By: Rathna Kumari B.M. , Raveesha H.R. ,

Page No : 119-128

Andrographis serpyllifolia is a traditional medicinal plant used in curing wounds and jaundice for its potential antimicrobial properties. The present study was aimed to screening of phytochemical constit uents of A. serpyllifolia and to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial property. The results showed alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins, polysterols, terpenoids, etc. Intriguingly, higher amounts of phenolic content and alkaloids were found in the stem, flavonoids in the root and stem and tannins in the leaf. The antioxidant potential of the plant extracts determined by different methods showed differential inhibition values and was concentration dependent. The higher DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity were found in stem and leaf extract with an IC50 value of 23.81±5.71 µg/mL and 3.70±1.38 µg/mL respec tively. The reducing power scavenging activity was higher in the leaf extract (136.17±24.24µg/mL) and stem (152.7±10.13µg/mL). Whereas the total antioxidant capacity was noticed in stem and root extracts. The antibacterial activity was done against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Comparatively, leaf and stem extracts were more effective against B. subtilis with a maximum zone of inhibition (19.66±1.23 and 19.29±1.40 mm) followed by root extracts against E. faecalis (22.19±1.86 mm) at 30 µg/µL. Further, the leaf, stem, and root extract were efficient against E. coli with the zone of inhibition of 23.46±2.51, 19.66±2.25 and 21.66±2.15 mm respectively, at 30 µg/µL concentration. The studies conclude that A. serpyllifolia is a rich source of potential phytochemicals with antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

Rathna Kumari B.M. : Department of Botany, Government First Grade College, Vijayanagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Raveesha H.R. : Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.


Price: 251

Role of Endophytes in Modulating Pythium Infection in Zingiberaceae – A General Review

By: Divya L. , Mani Shankar Babu ,

Page No : 129-137

The Zingiberaceae family is widely recognized for its therapeutic and medicinal properties. Most of the members of this family being valuable spice crop, significantly boost the local economy in the areas where they are grown. Ornamental value of some members reserves a unique position. Tropical and subtropical nations rely heavily on the commercial cultivation of ginger and turmeric. India is home to some of the most varied and abundant populations of Zingiberaceae. Rhizome rot is the most devastating disease caused by Pythium species evidenced with almost 90% crop loss. Current approaches of disease control cannot be fully relied upon. So, there is an urgent need for effective alternatives. Endophytes are being extensively investigated as a potent biotic agent to manage a variety of diseases in many crop plants. The purpose of this review is to enumerate the studies conducted on the feasibility of using endo phytes against Pythium infection in Zingiberaceae.

Divya L. : Postgraduate and Research Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Mani Shankar Babu : Postgraduate and Research Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.


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Study of Growth Parameters in Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm.

By: Indu Singh Sankhla , Manmohan Arya

Page No : 138-143

In India the waste generated from agriculture crops does not have any proper industrial use. Mushroom is a fleshy, macroscopic fungus belonging to the basidiomycetes group of Mycota kingdom. Edible mushrooms have significant diversity in their cultivation. The climate of the northern hilly region of India is suitable for Agaricus whereas the southern is fit for Volvoriella cultivation. The subtropical region offers the perfect conditions for Pleurotus cultivation. Pleurotus has many species like P. ostreatus, P. florida, P. sapidus, P. djmor, P. eous etc. Pleurotus ostreatus is suitable for tropical and subtropical region of the country. Rajasthan produces several subtropical crops like Bajra, Mustard, and Wheat, which resulting in generation of lignocellulose-rich waste. This study investigated the impact of various agro-wastes on the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus. Three combinations of agro-crop wastes were employed and examined. Pleurotus ostreatus took the least amount of time for the spawn run in the Wheat-Mustard-Bajra (T3 ) combination, while the Wheat-Bajra (T1 ) combination saw the earliest primordia initiation. The T1 combination also saw the shortest maturation time and shortest harvesting period. Furthermore, among the three highest-weight individuals from each treatment, T3 exhibited larger dimensions compared to others, with weights of 22 gm, stem length of 6 cm, and cap dimensions of 8x9cm². Maximum harvested mushroom production (636 gm), biological efficiency (84.7%) and Moisture content (91.44%) were noted in the T2 combination. The goals of sustainable development will be met and an appropriate agro-waste for mushroom cultivation will be established with the aid of this study.

Manmohan Arya : Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Indu Singh Sankhla : Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.


Price: 251

A Checklist of Angiosperms of Lungmaiching Hill Ranges, Manipur, Northeast India

By: Sarangthem Khonachand Singh , Syed Nusrat Amin , Athokpam Pinokiyo ,

Page No : 144-153

A total of 338 species of Angiosperms belonging to 247 genera and 80 families have been recorded from Lungmaiching Hill Ranges located in Imphal east district, Manipur. The recorded species are classified under APG IV. Of these, highest species diversity is shown by Eudicots with 240 species, followed by Monocots with 84 species, Magnolids with 13 species, etc. The species composition is dominated by herbs (121 spp.) and trees (104 spp.) while others are represented by shrubs (76 spp.), epiphytes (21 spp.), climbers (15 spp.) and creeper (1 sp.). At family level, Fabaceae (22 spp.) showed highest species content and is followed by Orchidaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (21 spp.), Poaceae (20 spp.) and Moraceae (16 spp.). The study also reported Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites and Ficus hirta Vahl as new additions to the flora of Manipur.

Sarangthem Khonachand Singh : Department of Botany, Imphal College, Imphal, Manipur, India.
Syed Nusrat Amin : Department of Botany, D.M. College of Science, Dhanamanjuri University, Manipur, India.
Athokpam Pinokiyo : Department of Botany, D.M. College of Science, Dhanamanjuri University, Manipur, India.


Price: 251

In-vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties in methanol leaf extract of Calanthe masuca (D. Done). Lindl. (Orchidaceae) of terrestrial an endangered orchid of Kolli Hills, in Tamil Nadu

By: Duraisamy Kavitha , Veeraiyan Nandagopalan , Seedar Deborah ,

Page No : 154-162

In the present study, we assessed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol leaf extract of Calanthe masuca (D. Done). Lindl through in-vitro methods. Antioxidant activity has been investigated using various assays, including 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylthydrezyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, ABT-assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, across different concentrations (500, 250, 100, 50, and 10 μg/ml). The in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated through the albumin denaturation assay, measuring inhibitory activity at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 10 μg/ml. A standard drug employed for comparison in the anti-inflammatory study. The results indicated significant antioxidant activity in the methanol leaf extract, as evidenced by IC50 values of 97.35 µg/ml (DPPH), 79.24 µg/ml (ABT-assay), 51.07 µg/ml (Hydrogen peroxide) and 28.62 µg/mg (Nitric oxide radical scavenging). The in-vitro anti-inflammatory assessment revealed inhibition of heat-induced albumin denaturation, with an IC50 value of 76.03 µg/mg. To conclude, Calanthe masuca (D. Done). Lindl’s methanol leaf extract has shown promising pharmaceutical and pharmacological activities, which highlight its potential therapeutic significance.

Duraisamy Kavitha : PG and Research, Department of Botany, National College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
Veeraiyan Nandagopalan : Associate Professor, Department of Botany, National College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
Seedar Deborah : Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Jamal Mohammed College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.



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Insights of Micropropagation, Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from an Endangered Medicinal Plant Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.

By: Lavanya Nallasamy , Amutha Swaminathan , Deepika Krishnamoorthy , Girija Sangari Murugavelu , Swarna Lakshmi Selvaraj ,

Page No : 163-189

Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. is a medicinal plant renowned for its pharmacological properties, faces threats due to habitat destruction and over-exploitation. This study targeted to explore micropropagation techniques to mitigate these challenges and investigated seed germination, callus formation from various explants, direct organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis. Surface sterilization methods were optimized to enhance seed germination rates. The seed coat is hard it prevents the seed germination, to overcomethe seed dormancy and the seeds were treated with 4℃ for 48 hours. The germination of 83.33% was achieved after the partial seed coat removal. Callus formation was induced from leaf, node, internode, and root explants using different hormone combinations. Maximum callus formation was observed on MS medium amended with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6 – benzyl amino- purine (2,4-D+BAP) in all explants. Hormone combinations also influenced direct root and shoot formation, with higher concentrations promoting greater responses. Somatic embryogenesis was induced in leaf and root explants using 2,4-D and BAP. Optimal concentrations (1.5 mg/L each) resulted in the formation of globular stage embryos. Histological analysis revealed distinct cellular processes during somatic embryogenesis, including embryo differentiation. It emphasizes the importance of hormone optimization and provides insights into the stomatic embryogenesis driving the plant regeneration in R. tetraphylla, offering valuable contributions to tissue culture protocols and conservation efforts for the endangered medicinal plant.

Lavanya Nallasamy : Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Amutha Swaminathan : Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Deepika Krishnamoorthy : Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Girija Sangari Murugavelu : Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Swarna Lakshmi Selvaraj : Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


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Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton

By: Prantik Hazra , Arghya Ghosh

Page No : 190-196

The present study aimed to investigate, the Brine shrimp activities and the larvicidal activities of Methanolic leaves and flower extracts of Calotropis procera. The larvicidal activities were studied on Anopheles, Culex, and Chironomus. Surviving larvae and brine shrimps were counted after every 3 hours up to 24 hours and the percentage of death at each dose and control was determined. The LC50 value of Brine Shrimps was 125 mg/ml at 24 hrs, for Anopheles larvae the value of this sample was 50 μg/ml at 24 hrs, for Culex larvae,75 μg/ml at 21 hrs, and for Chironomus larvae, 125 μg/ml at 18 hrs. Death of larvae was increased with the increased concentration of crude extract. However, the outcome of the study failed to show acute toxic effects on brine shrimp and Chironomus larvae; but significant toxicity was observed in methanolic leaf extracts of Calotropis procera in mosquito larvae. This could have serious implications in vector control strategies and minimizing impact on the environment.

Prantik Hazra : Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, Darjeeling Government College, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.
Arghya Ghosh : Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Jhargram Raj College, Jhargram, West Bengal, India.


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Cycadofilicales (Pteridospermales)

By: Teena Agrawal , Prerana Badoni , Suman Kacholia , Manisha Chauhan ,

Page No : 197-205

The discovery of this group of gymnosperms from the Palaeozoic era is one of the notable achievements of the palaeobotanist and it was of immense value to the palaeobotany & in phylogeny. It includes fern like plants which were dominant in the Devonian period. They extend into the beginning of the Mesozoic era, later on, there was a mass extinction of the pteridospermales, due to the misconception, that they were initially considered ferns and fern-like plants. Williamson (1897) first considered these plants as an intermediate of the ferns and cycads due to the morphological and anatomical similarity of the organs. H. Potonie (1899) was the first to give their names as the Cycadofilicales. Oliver and Scott ( 1904) named this group as pteridospermales due to the similarity between the ferns and spermatophytes. In this review article features of the order pteridospermales and their phylogeny have been discussed.

Teena Agrawal : Department of Botany, Career Point University, Kota, Rajasthan, India.
Prerana Badoni : Forest Pathology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
Suman Kacholia : Professor, Govt. P.G. College, Chimanpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Manisha Chauhan : Professor, Department of College Education, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.


Price: 251