Productivity : A Quarterly Journal of The National Productivity Council

Published in Association with National Productivity Council

Current Volume: 64 (2023-2024 )

ISSN: 0032-9924

e-ISSN: 0976-3902

Periodicity: Quarterly

Month(s) of Publication: June, September, December & March

Subject: Economics

DOI: 10.32381/PROD


Productivity is the principal journal of the National Productivity Council of India. The Journal aims at disseminating information on concepts of and data on productivity and its growth in India and elsewhere. It also aims at disseminating knowledge on techniques and methods of productivity improvement through effective management of all types of resources. Thus contribution from a large spectrum of disciplines are accepted for publication.Only those manuscripts that present original results will be accepted of the publication in the Journal.The managerial/policy implications of the study should be highlighted separately towards the end of the paper.

Genamics (Journalseek)
Indian Citation Index


Rajesh Sund

National Productivity Council, Utpadakta Bhawan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.

Editorial consultant
Payal Kumar

Editorial Board
S. Gopalakrishnan

Abad Ahmed

N.M. Barot

Vinay Bharat Ram

Ram K. Iyengar

T.S. Papola

N.S. Randhawa

Gourav Vallabh

Volume 64 Issue 2 , (Jul- to Sep-2023)

E-Commerce: An Empirical Study

By: Rajeshwari M. Shettar

Page No : 115-122

E-commerce or electronic commerce is the buying and selling of goods or services on the internet. It encompasses a wide variety of data, systems and tools for online buyers and sellers, including mobile shopping and online payment encryption. Most businesses with an online presence use an online store and platform to conduct e-commerce marketing and sales activities and to oversee logistics and fulfillment. Global retail e-commerce sales are expected to surpass US$5 trillion for the first time, accounting for more than a fifth of overall retail sales, and by 2025, total spending will exceed US$7 trillion, despite slowing growth. E-commerce also known as e-business or electronic business, is simply the sale and purchase of services and goods over an electronic medium, like the Internet. It also involves electronically transferring data and funds between two or more parties. E-commerce started way back in the 1960s when organizations began to use electronic data interchange. Today, e-commerce has become an integral part of everyday life. Accessibility to an e-commerce platform is not a privilege but rather a necessity for people, particularly those from urban areas. Due to the fast adoption of internet-enabled devices like smartphones and tablets, there has been an unparalleled growth in e-commerce. The growth of e-commerce volumes in India is attracting the attention of players around the globe. The present study is descriptive in nature and is based on secondary data. The study found that e-commerce sites run quickly, determined by computer and bandwidth considerations on both consumer device and e-commerce site. The study also found that an e-commerce transaction can comprise of a few clicks and take less than few minutes.

Author :
Rajeshwari M. Shettar : Principal, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Shri. Hurakadli Ajja Shikshan Samiti’s Smt. K. S. Jigalur Arts and Dr. (Smt.) S. M. Sheshgiri Commerce College for Women, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.


Price: 251

Role of E-Commerce in Productivity

By: Chandra Sekhar Pattnaik

Page No : 123-130

Productivity and production go hand in hand in the sustainability and management of any business enterprise. Due to the ever changing situations in this age of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), productivity plays a crucial role in the success of a business, whether it is a service or a manufacturing or even an ancillary unit. Technological advancements have thrown both challenges and opportunities to enhance productivity. Ecommerce is one such significant contributing factor to productivity. This paper throws light upon the role of e-commerce in productivity, and enumerates the issues and challenges associated with the effective and efficient use of e-commerce for productivity.

Author :
Chandra Sekhar Pattnaik : Professor, Omega P G College-MBA, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.


Price: 251

E-commerce in India and its Business Models

By: Jagdish H. Gojiya

Page No : 131-138

There are many opportunities for e-commerce to develop in India thanks to the country’s large youth population, rising standard of living, changing lifestyle, rapid expansion in information and communication technology, availability of broadband, 4G technologies, etc. Customers can electronically exchange goods and services with no time or distance restrictions thanks to ecommerce. Over the past five years, electronic commerce has grown rapidly, and experts expect that it will continue to grow at this rate or perhaps faster. However, there is a lack of an e-commerce legal framework, inconsistent economic climate, inadequate transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, and varying social and educational attitudes towards e-commerce, etc. The distinction between “traditional” and “electronic” commerce will become increasingly hazy in the near future as more companies migrate portions of their activities online. Due to the internet’s extreme saturation and the difficulty of using technological gadgets, the ecommerce industry in India is expanding at an exceptional rate. However, India’s recent e-commerce growth rate has lagged much below that of other wealthy nations. E-commerce rewards include ease, time savings, options, and flexibility, simple to compare, simple to find reviews, coupons and discounts, a growing consumer base, increased sales, open 24/7/365, and company development.

Author :
Jagdish H. Gojiya :
Assistant professor, Saurashtra Gnanpith arts and Commerce College – Bravala Junagdh, Gujarat, India


Price: 251

Impact of Goods and Services Tax (GST) on Retail Business Productivity

By: Sandeep Kumar , Goutam Tanty

Page No : 139-145

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) was introduced to simplify the tax system by eliminating the cascading effect of multiple taxes, leading to uniform tax rates across states and the creation of a unified market for goods and services. This research aims to investigate how the implementation of GST has impacted the productivity of India’s retail industry. By replacing various indirect taxes, GST streamlined the tax structure and aimed to promote ease of doing business, reduce compliance burdens, and potentially boost productivity in the retail sector. The study examines different aspects, including tax structure, supply chain efficiency, tax evasion, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), tax compliance, and consumer prices, to assess the overall effect of GST on the productivity of the retail business.

Authors :
Goutam Tanty : Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce & Management, Sarala Birla University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
Sandeep Kumar : Dean, Faculty of Commerce & Management, Sarala Birla University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.


Price: 251

E-Commerce Performance of Industrial Clusters in India

By: E. Bhaskaran

Page No : 146-174

The Ministry of MSME administers the Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) Mart, while the Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers the Government E-Market (GeM). A study was conducted to understand the performance of industrial clusters in India on these portals with the objective of studying the physical and financial performance of MSME Mart and GeM for MSMEs. The methodology of this study consists of the collection of secondary data from the MSME Mart website using input variables like No. of MSMEs, Micro (Mn), Small (Sn), Medium (Dn), Total Uydam Registration (Ut), No. of MSME Clusters in India (Cn), No. of Working Enterprises in India (Un), Employment in India (En), Original Value of P & M in India (INR crores; Pc), Market Value of Fixed Assets in India (INR crores; Mc), Award of Contract in India (Ac) and output variables like Gross Output in India (INR crores; Gc), which were analysed using descriptive analysis. It was found that there is an increase in the CAGR. The Award of Contract given to MSMEs should be increased as Karnataka and West Bengal are performing well in MSME Mart. The input variables collected from GeM like No. of Orders Placed (Op), No. of Unique Products Sold (Up), No. of Total Products Sold (Ps), No. of Organizations Registered (Cumulative) on GeM (Gn), No. of Sellers/Service Providers (Cumulative; Sn), Order Value (INR crores) by State/UT’s (Os), Order Value (INR crores) by Central Organizations (Co.) and No. of MSE Sellers (Cumulative; Mn) and output variables like Order Value (INR crores; Ove) were analysed using descriptive analysis; it was found that the CAGR is increasing. A correlation analysis was conducted; the findings reveal a strong relationship between the input and output variables. The trend and regression analyses reveal increases in output and input variables. The Government of India and the concerned state governments implement the MSME Mart and GeM for MSME clusters in India to reduce the costs of production and marketing and increase profits, which allows MSMEs to compete in the domestic and international markets through ecommerce.

Author :
E. Bhaskaran :
Joint Director (Engineering)/General Manager, DIC, Department of Industries and Commerce, Government of Tamil Nadu, Guindy, Tamil Nadu, India.


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Factors Affecting Online Food Purchase Decisions of Urban Consumers

By: Kavita Indrapurkar , Namita Kapoor , Nandini Chaudhary

Page No : 175-186

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected consumer behaviour and accelerated the adoption of online food purchasing. Understanding the factors influencing online food purchase decisions of urban consumers in the post-pandemic era is crucial for businesses to adapt to the changing landscape and meet evolving consumer demands. In this regard, the study aims to provide insights into the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control that influence consumers’ intentions to engage in online food purchasing. The findings reveal that these constructs significantly predict intentions to engage in online food purchase; in addition, gender differences were not found to be significant.

Authors :
Kavita Indrapurkar :
Professor & Joint Administrator, Amity School of Economics, Amity University, Noida, India.
Namita Kapoor : Associate Professor, Amity School of Economics, Amity University, Noida, India.
Nandini Chaudhary : Student, Amity School of Economics, Amity University, Noida, India.


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The Impact of GeM on Gen Z: A Perspective on E-Commerce

By: Ankita Sharma , Tanushree Sanwal , Jyoti Pandey , Kanishka Mittal

Page No : 187-193

This paper aims to discover the effects of e-commerce on the younger generations. The Indian e-commerce market is expanding at a fast rate and is expected to experience accelerated expansion in the coming years. Between 2019 and 2022, the e-commerce business experienced extraordinary growth, with its total revenues increasing by more than 60 times. In India, approximately 180 million internet users, or about 80 million households, are “ready” for e-commerce, but fewer than 10 million of these individuals make online purchases. One of the most significant benefits of e-commerce for a developing country like India is its capacity to support its young population. As Indian e-commerce nurtures, the most consistent returns for investors will come from enterprises with high margins. E-commerce, which consists of marketing and other commercial processes conducted over computer-mediated networks, is influencing the operations of businesses in a variety of industries. It causes some job responsibilities to be mechanized and others to be replaced by self-service operations, thereby increasing production per worker and decreasing the demand for some occupations. The introduction and use of new technologies have posed significant challenges for commercial employees around the globe. E-commerce has also boosted employment in the disciplines that develop the systems and software required for it, as well as those that deal with websites and networks. This is beneficial for young people, particularly those with an interest in engineering and technology. Recent college graduates favour the e-commerce industry and plan to invest in it to launch their own profitable businesses. The present paper looks into the influence of e-commerce, especially the effect of GeM, the government e-marketplace on the generation of youth more commonly known as Generation Z or simply, Gen Z.

Authors :
Tanushree Sanwal :
Assistant Professor, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, India.
Ankita Sharma : Assistant Professor, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, India.
Jyoti Pandey : Student, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, India.
Kanishka Mittal : Student, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, India.


Price: 251

Studying Consumer Behaviour of Shopping Through Online Portals from Students’ Perspective

By: Bhagyashree Deshpande

Page No : 194-201

Online buying has risen to prominence among modern college students because of the booming worldwide e-commerce sector. An empirical study was conducted among management students of various b-schools in Maharashtra to understand their shopping habits on online portals. The intention was to identify the factors that drive students purchase decisions. This paper also analyzes the impact of gender on purchase types. It was observed that gender has no impact on purchase decisions of students. The findings demonstrate that enjoyment, perceived risk, and social influence have a considerable impact on students online shopping habits. Indian online business owners may find these results to be a useful source of information for their marketing plans.

Author :
Bhagyashree Deshpande :
Assistant Professor (Management Department), Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India.


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Poverty Reduction through MGNREGA in Himachal Pradesh

By: Balbir Singh , S L Kaushal

Page No : 202-209

People are considered poor if their levels of income and consumption fall below a given minimum level necessary to fulfill their basic needs. Poverty reduction aims at improving the quality of life through various government schemes launched from time to time. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 or MNREGA is one such scheme that provides hundred days of guaranteed employment to each household in a financial year. The present paper is an endeavour to study the impact of the scheme on poverty reduction in the Sirmour and Solan districts of the states of Himachal Pradesh. For this study, 400 below poverty line (BPL) MNREGA beneficiaries were selected and data collected with the help of a questionnaire on aspects like food availability, earnings, expenditure patterns, risk management, and savings, among others. Their level of living has improved significantly, and the scheme has been proven to be an important source for their income and survival. The study also revealed that after MNREGA employment, the poor were able to procure food grains from fair price shops and grain shops. The findings also show that expenditure on the education of children, medical facilities, insurance, entertainment, social occasions, etc. has increased in poor households after the implementation of MNREGA.

Authors :
Balbir Singh : Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Sardar Patel University, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
S L Kaushal : Ex Director & Dean, Faculty of Commerce, Management & Tourism, Professor, Himachal Pradesh University Business School, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India


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Determination of the Optimum Mix of Pollution Abatement Methods Used in a Thermal Power Plant – A Case Study

By: V. Durga Prasada Rao , N. Harsha , N. Siva Rami Reddy

Page No : 210-219

In a country like India, one of the primary sources of emissions is thermal power plants. A draft regulation has been proposed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests for emission standards in coalfired power plants. This consists of notable reductions in particulate matter (PM), sulphur-dioxide (SO2 ), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX). The main thrust of this work is the determination of the optimum mix of pollution abatement methods used in a thermal power station near Vijayawada in the state of Andhra Pradesh by using the big – M simplex method of linear programming. The plant has 7 units working under 4 stages with a power capacity of 1,760 MW and generating 42 million kWh electrical energy per day. This case study is focused on the 6th and 7th power generating units of the plant. The abatement methods aimed at SO2, NOX and PM removal consist of taller smoke chimneys; filters such as desulphurisation plant, nitrogen oxides removal plants, and electrostatic precipitators; and better coal. Among these pollution abatement methods, electrostatic precipitators and taller chimneys are already in use at the plant. With the advent of new emission legislations, it is the need of the hour to understand different possibilities for the reduction of SO2 and NOX levels by 90% or more. So, in this study, a combination of desulphurisation, nitrogen oxide removal and better coal methods were added and the optimum mix of the fractional capacities of all these abatement methods were obtained by formulating a linear programming problem and solving it. This study helps in optimizing the maintenance costs of the SO2, NOX and PM removal equipment used in the plant. Also, the optimum solution suggests that a combined fractional use of all the pollution abatement methods helps in reducing the different air pollutants released from the plant, i.e., the emission rate of pollutants can be reduced to the required levels.

Authors :
V. Durga Prasada Rao :
Dept. of Mechanical Engg., S.R.K.R Engineering College, Bhimavaram, India.
N. Siva Rami Reddy : Dept. of Mech. Engg., Annamacharya Institute of Tech. and Sciences, Rajampet, India.
N. Harsha : Dept. of Mechanical Engg., S.R.K.R Engineering College, Bhimavaram, India.


Price: 251