Annals of the National Association of Geographers India - A UGC-CARE Listed Journal

Published in Association with National Association of Geographers, India (NAGI)

Current Volume: 43 (2023 )

ISSN: 0970-972X

Periodicity: Half-Yearly

Month(s) of Publication: June & December

Subject: Geography


Online Access is Free for All Life Member of NAGI


Annals of the National Association of Geographers, India (ISSN: 0970-972X) is a national journal (UGC-CARE Listed) that publishes on all matters concerning the study of geography and allied disciplines. The journal provides a medium for the wide dissemination of original papers discussing various implications connected with geography from many points of view including international, political, environmental, economic, social, medical, managerial, planning, scientific, and engineering aspects. NAGI is the only national body of Geographers of the country and presently it has more than 2600 life members. It was established in 1978 with its headquarters in the Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. Every year the Association organizes the Indian Geography Congress in different universities of India. Apart from the Indian Geography Congress, the Association also organized International Geography Congress.

Indian Citation Index


Editorial Board
Prof. H. S. Sharma

Rajasthan University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

Prof. Y G Joshi

ICSSR Regional Centre, Ujjain, M.P.

Prof. M.H. Qureshi

JNU, New Delhi

Prof. B Thakur

University of Delhi

Prof. P.S. Tiwari

University of Madras, Chennai

Prof. Sudesh Nagia

JNU, New Delhi

Prof. H. Ramachandran

University of Delhi, Delhi

Prof. Yuei-An Liou

National Central University, Taiwan

Prof. Yuji Murayama

University of Tsukuba, Japan

Prof. H. N. Misra

University of Allahabad, U.P.

Prof. S. K. Sharma

Sagar University, M.P

Prof Surya Kant

Punjab University 

Prof. Rolee Kanchan

Baroda University, Gujarat

Prof. S. Chattopadhyay

Centre for Earth Sciences, Trivandrum

Prof. Sunil De


Prof. D. P. Singh

A. N. College, Patna

Dr. Alexandre Gagnon

Liverpool John Moores University, UK

Prof. Sunil Bhaskaran

City University New York, USA

Prof. Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam

Begum Rokeya University, Bangladesh

Dr. Maik Netzband

DOK Mitt e V, Germany

Associate Editor
Dr. Padmini Pani

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Volume 43 Issue 2 , (Jul-2023 to Dec-2023)

Estimation of Soil Erosion of the Balason River Basin in the Darjeeling Himalayan Region, India

By: Dipesh Roy , Rajib Mitra , Deepak Kumar Mandal

Page No : 239-261

The present study has been conducted by employing the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) modelling in the Balason River Basin (BRB) of the Darjeeling Himalayan region to predict the actual or predicted and potential soil loss. The input factors were rainfall erosivity (R factor), soil erodibility (K factor), slope length and steepness (LS factor), cover and management (C factor), and support practice (P factor). The outcome of the work reflects that the actual soil loss in the basin ranges from 0 to 1054.41 t ha-1 year-1, while the potential soil loss varies from 0 to 6125.56 t ha-1 year-1. In the study area, the central and northernmost portions are in the very high potential soil loss zone, while the lower part of this watershed is in the low anticipated soil loss zone. The study will be immensely beneficial in identifying areas of high soil erosion risk, where the government must speed up effective conservation measures.

Authors :
Dipesh Roy : Research Scholar, Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India.
Rajib Mitra : Research Scholar, Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India.
Deepak Kumar Mandal : Professor, Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India


Price: 251

Applying Integrated Approach of GIS and Landscape Metrics for Analyzing Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of Varanasi District, India

By: Nitish Kumar Singh , Geeta Devi , Mahendra Singh Nathawat

Page No : 262-279

Traditionally, landscape metrics have been used to study the landscape structure and ensuing changes in its structure over time at different levels. Landscape metrics-based studies have been mainly confined to scientists and researchers of the environment or ecology. It has not been so popular under the subject area of geography as much as among ecologists. Therefore, the use of landscape metrics should be encouraged along with traditional GIS-based land use and land cover studies in geography; so that, as a geographer, we can explore the spatial pattern of land transformations along with its structural nature because only spatial study of changes in the area is not enough, their structure is also important. Keeping the above thought in mind, the present study has attempted to use GISbased supervised classification and landscape metrics in some integrated modus to conduct a spatio-temporal study of the land use and land cover of the Varanasi district from the period of 2000 to 2020. It uses USGS's Landsat ETM + (Year-2000) and OLI (Year-2020) data along with six class-level (CA, NP, MPS, CLUMPY, PLAND, and nLSI) and two landscapelevel (SHIDI, and SIDI) metrics. Therefore, ERDAS v. 2015, ArcGIS v. 10.7, and fragstats v. 4.2 have been used to classify satellite images and calculate landscape metrics. The result shows that the Varanasi district had the maximum decrease in the areas of vegetation cover, water bodies, and agricultural land. In contrast, the maximum increase was observed in built-up land and vacant land. Along with this, there has been a rapid change in the patch structure, shape, and distribution of different land use land covers, so the diversity has increased at the landscape level in the study area.

Authors :
Nitish Kumar Singh : Research Scholar, Discipline of Geography, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.
Geeta Devi : Research Scholar, Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
Mahendra Singh Nathawat : Professor, Discipline of Geography, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.


Price: 251

Spatio-Temporal Analysis on Channel Migration of the Jiadhal River Basin Using Geospatial Techniques

By: Monalisha Mili , Manash Jyoti Bhuyan , Dinky Mishra

Page No : 280-300

Jiadhal is one of the most notorious rivers of Assam, flowing through the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra. The river is mostly known for its frequent bankline shifting and creating floods, particularly in the Dhemaji district of Assam, India. Consequently, channel migration in the Jiadhal River is a common phenomenon. A spatio-temporal change in the river has been revealed by the analysis of Landsat TM imagery over 26 years in the GIS environment. In order to examine the temporal channel migration patterns, 59.30 km of the river's total length was divided into 11 parts by taking cross-sections at equal intervals of 6 km. Uneven rainfall patterns, embankment construction, sand mining, and the development of dams, barrages, and roadways all have an impact on the river's hydrological system. It is noteworthy that human activities aggravating the morpho-ecological changes of the river are the main reasons for river channel migration, independent of natural hydrological processes. The riverbed's unevenness and undulation have significantly increased as a result of this. Therefore, the present paper analyses the spatio-temporal variations of channel migration in the lower Jiadhal basin using geospatial techniques

Authors :
Monalisha Mili : Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Nowgong College (Autonomous), Assam, India.
Manash Jyoti Bhuyan : Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Nowgong Girls’ College, Assam, India
Dinky Mishra : Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Nowgong College (Autonomous), Assam, India.


Price: 251

Geo-spatial Appraisal of Existing Road Networks and its Impact on Regional Development: A Case Study of Bhojpur District, Bihar

By: Fouzia Rahman , Sanjay Kumar

Page No : 301-317

The medium of transportation facilitates the movement of people, products, and services. It has consistently played a significant role in the expansion of urbanization, industry, and modernization. It has been shown that effective transportation systems are crucial for fostering social cohesion and economic prosperity in a region. India has some rural and urban regions with strong transportation connectivity, but many villages lack wellorganized and efficient transportation systems. The present work covers the district's regional development in connection to road connectivity, its development, and the level of transportation. For showing road network connectivity, the Graph Theory has been used and the level of transport development has been examined by using aggregate transport score (ATS). The level of regional development has been demonstrated using the composite index, which normalizes various socioeconomic factors. Using georeferencing and digitizing, software like ArcGIS facilitates network analysis, processing of spatial data, and the creation of maps. Road transportation was discovered to have a positive relationship with regional development in the district.

Authors :
Fouzia Rahman : Assistant Professor, P.G Department of Geography, Veer Kunwar Singh University, Ara
Sanjay Kumar : Associate Professor, P.G. Department of Geography, Maharaja College Veer Kunwar Singh University


Price: 251

Agricultural Productivity Indices of Major Food Crops in Jammu Province, UT of Jammu and Kashmir, India

By: Tajinder Kour , Sarvjeet Singh , Rakesh Jasrotia ,

Page No : 318-330

Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the people and it contributes a major share to the economy of the state. Agricultural development is an integral part of rural development. Hence, for Agricultural development, one should proceed to interpret the regional imbalances in the levels of agricultural productivity or performance per unit area of different crops. Agricultural productivity refers to the output produced by a given level of input(s) in the agricultural sector of a given economy. More formally, it can be defined as “the ratio of the value of total farm outputs to the value of total inputs used in farm production”. The present study is an attempt to determine the agricultural productivity of Jammu Province. For analyzing agricultural productivity, ten districts of Jammu Province have been taken as the unit of study. The productivity indices of major food crops viz. Rice, Maize, and Wheat were considered for each district and were computed.

Authors :
Tajinder Kour : Post-Doc Fellow, Department of Geography, University of Jammu, India
Sarvjeet Singh : Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Govt. Degree College, Doda, Jammu, India.
Rakesh Jasrotia : Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Maulana Azad Memorial College, Jammu, India.


Price: 251

Analysing Crop Diversification and its Effect on Food Consumption Patterns

By: Pragati Pandey , Vivek Kumar Shukla , V. K. Tripathi

Page No : 331-340

In a country like India where agriculture is the most prevalent occupation of the people, there is still a disconnect between the farm and the household consumption basket. The paper tries to analyze the recent shift of Indian agriculture towards horticultural crops like fruits and vegetables in light of whether the increase in production has translated into such items being included in the diet. The findings of the paper help in understanding the longdebated agriculture nutrition disconnects in policy discourse. The analysis reveals that there has been an unprecedented increase in the production of horticultural crops over the years when compared to food grains. An analysis of the dietary diversity reveals that there has only been a marginal increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables rather the trend is more or less stagnant. The paper concludes that the high export value of horticultural crops resulting in maximum export of the produce leads to high prices of fruits and vegetables in the market and their subsequent exclusion from the consumption basket.

Authors :
Pragati Pandey : Assistant Professor, Government Degree College, Pachwas, Basti.
Vivek Kumar Shukla : Assistant Professor, B.B.D.P.G. College, Paruiya Ashram, Ambedkarnagar
V. K. Tripathi : Professor, Department of Geography, Institute of Sciences, Banaras Hindu University.


Price: 251

Estimation of Normalized Differences Vegetation Index and Forest Cover Density of Satpura Foothills in Nandurbar District, Maharashtra, Using Remote Sensing Application

By: Sandip Garud , Mohan Arjun Vasave

Page No : 341-351

Forest Cover Density is one of the key parameters for assessing the ecological condition of a forest. The Present study estimates the change in forest cover density using remote sensing techniques for the last decade, i.e., from 2010 to 2021 of the Satpura Foothills in Nandurbar District. Remotely sensed multispectral data from Landsat-8 and Landsat-9 is highly useful in vegetation change analysis based on remote sensing indices and forest cover density parameters. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and FCD (Forest cover density) relation are essential to understanding the environmental effects on the forest on a regional scale. Threshold-based classification has been used to realize forest cover change in multi-temporal studies. The result shows that forest canopy cover, as well as forest density, are radically reduced between the period 2010 and 2021. It is also stated that 119.51 km2 areas have been degraded over 11 years. Period (2010-2021) with a rate of 10.86 km2 every year is possible only due to the implementation of forest policies exclusively executing participatory or joint forest management techniques.

Authors :
Mohan Arjun Vasave : Department of Geography, Arts, Commerce & Science College, Taloda, District Nandurbar, Maharashtra, India
Sandip Garud : Department of Geography, Arts, Commerce & Science College, Taloda, District Nandurbar, Maharashtra, India


Price: 251

Development of Tube Well Irrigation and its Impact on Farmer’s Socio-Economic Conditions: A Case Study of Dakshin Dinajpur District, West Bengal

By: Manik Halder , Nuruzzaman Kasemi , Doli Roy

Page No : 352-369

Irrigation plays a pivotal role in enhancing agricultural production and shaping the socioeconomic well-being of farmers. Consequently, the judicious and efficient utilization of irrigated water resources is imperative. This paper aims to investigate the spatial disparities in the level of irrigation development facilitated by tube wells and assess their influence on farmers' socio-economic conditions through a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis. Drawing from both primary and secondary data sources, our study unveils a positive correlation between the extent of tube well-irrigated areas and the overall irrigated land within the district. Notably, changes in the area under tube well irrigation exert a significant impact on the entire irrigation system. Among the various blocks in the district, Hili block exhibits the highest percentage of land allocated to tube well irrigation, while the Tapan block has the lowest proportion of such irrigated areas. The predominant occupation in the study area is agriculture, and a majority of the farmers have received education only up to the upper primary level, indicating limited educational representation. Our analysis reveals a positive impact of tube well irrigation on farmers' income, as evidenced by the results of the costbenefit analysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study herein underscore the importance of efficient water resource management and the role of tube well irrigation in bolstering agricultural productivity and livelihoods within the region.

Authors :
Manik Halder : Ph.D. Research Scholar, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal, India.
Nuruzzaman Kasemi : Professor, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal, India
Doli Roy : Ph.D. Research Scholar, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal, India.


Price: 251

Migration of Matua Community from Bangladesh: A Microlevel Case Study from West Bengal, India

By: Rolee Kanchan , Nayan Roy

Page No : 370-385

In the history of migration in South and South East Asia, the great exodus of 1947 and 1971 due to the outcome of the nation-building process of the Indian sub-continent were the most gigantic episodes with respect to spatial, temporal, and post-traumatic experience. It created millions of homeless and jobless refugees who are still suffering from identity crises and stress through decolonization. Although some of them were ascendant groups and became decision-making authorities in their own ancestral habitats before decolonization. This paper tries to identify the migration scenario of some sections of Namasudra, a lower caste group that emerged as a dominant group as an outcome of westernization in the colonial period in Eastern areas of undivided Bengal. Hence, the Matua community was selected for this study. It is one of the low-caste groups, formed as a distinct religious practice in the undivided Bengal and consolidated in the colonial period but after partition became a refugee for India. Two villages were selected, i.e. A1 and A2 for the primary survey. The study reveals that in both the villages (A1 & A2) migration of Matua families continued till the previous decade of the twenty-first century whereas, in both villages, more than 80 percent of Matua families arrived after 1971. Thus, from the nationality perspective, those were illegal immigrants in India.

Authors :
Nayan Roy : Research Scholar, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.
Rolee Kanchan : Professor, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara


Price: 251

Understanding Loss of Cultural Practices in Tribal Communities: Observations from Hatkarra Village, Chhattisgarh, India

By: Abhik Sengupta , Kiran Bhairannavar

Page No : 386-397

The paper explores the idea of development and its effects on the cultural practices of tribes in India. Taking ethnographic snapshots of tribal communities in Hatkarra Village in Chhattisgarh, argues that state-led development, forces of globalization, and acculturation processes pose a danger in the loss of cultural practices that are central to making sense of the tribal community lifeworld. The paper provides three examples to make the case, namely, education, language, and festivals. The paper is organized into three sections. Firstly, we discuss Tribes and Development in India, where we trace the conceptualization of Tribes. Secondly, we briefly give the background of the village and the research method. Lastly, three ethnographic observations are presented to support the argument.

Authors :
Abhik Sengupta : The New School, New York, USA.
Kiran Bhairannavar : Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi.


Price: 251

Siachen by Mrinal Talukdar
ISBN No: 978-81-947444-1-2 398–400
Reviewed by Dr. Rashima Kachari

By: ..

Page No : 398-400

Price: 251

Learning GIS Using Open-Source Software: An Applied Guide for Geo-spatial
Analysis by Kakoli Saha and Yngve K. Frøyen
ISBN No: 978-10-004786-7-9

By: ..

Page No : 401-403

Price: 251

Instruction to the Author

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Annals of the National Association of Geographers, India (ISSN: 0970-972X) is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal committed to ensuring the highest standards of publication ethics. All parties involved in publishing (editor, editorial board, authors, reviewers and the publisher) have to agree upon standards of ethical behaviour.

1. The editor and the editorial board are responsible for deciding upon the suitability of the content and manuscripts that should be published. In making these decisions, they are guided by the journal's policies, the vision of the National Association of Geographers, India (NAGI) and by legal requirements of copyright infringement and plagiarism.

2. The reviewers are selected solely based on their academic and intellectual merit.

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