Productivity : A Quarterly Journal of The National Productivity Council

Published in Association with National Productivity Council

Current Volume: 65 (2024-2025 )

ISSN: 0032-9924

e-ISSN: 0976-3902

Periodicity: Quarterly

Month(s) of Publication: June, September, December & March

Subject: Economics

DOI: 10.32381/PROD


Productivity is the principal journal of the National Productivity Council of India. The Journal aims at disseminating information on concepts of and data on productivity and its growth in India and elsewhere. It also aims at disseminating knowledge on techniques and methods of productivity improvement through effective management of all types of resources. Thus contribution from a large spectrum of disciplines are accepted for publication.Only those manuscripts that present original results will be accepted of the publication in the Journal.The managerial/policy implications of the study should be highlighted separately towards the end of the paper.

Genamics (Journalseek)
Indian Citation Index


Rajesh Sund

National Productivity Council, Utpadakta Bhawan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.

Editorial consultant
Payal Kumar

Editorial Board
S. Gopalakrishnan

Abad Ahmed

N.M. Barot

Vinay Bharat Ram

Ram K. Iyengar

T.S. Papola

N.S. Randhawa

Gourav Vallabh

Volume 65 Issue 1 , (Apr- to Jun-2024)

Cybersecurity and Safeguarding Digital Assets: An Analysis of Regulatory Frameworks, Legal Liability and Enforcement Mechanisms

By: Vandana Ajay Kumar , Sachin Bhardwaj , Mahipal Lather

Page No : 1-10

This article highlights the intricate intersection of cybersecurity and law, delving into the legal ramifications of cyber incidents and its impact on safeguarding digital assets. With a focus on the regulatory frameworks, liability issues, and enforcement mechanisms, the study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evolving landscape. By examining the challenges and opportunities in safeguarding digital assets, this research contributes to the ongoing discourse on strengthening the legal foundations crucial for mitigating cyber threats and ensuring the resilience of our increasingly interconnected digital ecosystems.

Authors :
Vandana Ajay Kumar

Professor, Department of Laws, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

Sachin Bhardwaj
Assistant Professor, SVKM’s Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Mahipal Lather
Joint Director (Legal), Ministry of Defence, Govt of India.


Price: 251

Cyberspace vis-a-vis Cybersecurity in India through the Lens of Law and Policy

By: Apeksha Chaudhary , Vivek Kumar , Kusuma Vati

Page No : 11-20

Technology, roughly speaking, is a process or method involving use of machines in general, which when applied increases the frequency, efficiency or speed of performing some act; such application resulting in a marked improvement in the state of affairs. Technology, then, is always a product of one’s labour - physical as well as intellectual - and, hence, needs to be protected. In India, the internet started on a small scale but progressed well for a short time. However, its growth was slow and painful. Cybercrimes have become increasingly prevalent, with new kinds and manifestations of cybercriminal activities catching attention. According to the NCRB, India saw a rise of 24 percent in cybercrimes registered in 2022, as compared to 2021. There is therefore, a need to enact relevant government policies and cyber laws, which are necessary for regulating the cyber world in India. The legal system must play an important role in effectively regulating cybercriminal activities. The cybersecurity measures in India are quite ineffective.

Authors :
Vivek Kumar, Kusuma Vati and Apeksha Chaudhary

Assistant Professor, Institute of Legal Studies, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India


Price: 251

Understanding the Influence of Perceived Traceability, Anonymity, and Self-Efficacy on Cryptocurrency Investment Intentions: A Study of Cybersecurity Behaviours

By: K. Mohammed Nabeel , M. Sumathy

Page No : 21-28

This article investigates the effects of perceived traceability, anonymity, and self-efficacy on the intention to invest in cryptocurrency. The report is based on a survey of a sample of 235 cryptocurrency investors from Kerala, India. The study design is descriptive, with a focus on the security behaviours of crypto-asset users and the cybersecurity concerns that the crypto business faces. The findings of the multiple regression analysis show that perceived traceability, perceived anonymity, and perceived self efficacy all have a substantial impact on the intention to invest in cryptocurrencies. Perceived traceability and anonymity are positively related to investment intentions. Perceived self-efficacy also has a favourable influence on investment intention, implying that those who are more confident in their ability to carry out cryptocurrency transactions are more likely to invest.

Authors :
K. Mohammed Nabeel

Ph.D Research Scholar, Senior Research Fellow, School of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

M. Sumathy 
Professor & Head, School of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


Price: 251

Cybersecurity Frameworks and Models: Review of the Existing Global Best Practices

By: Sandeep K. Shukla , Madhusree Kole , Ashish K. Upadhyay , Ayush Sinha , Preet Sharma , Manas Sarkar , Sandeep Kumar Yadav , Sarang Raj Chourasia

Page No : 29-42

The pace of digitalization has accelerated, and internet connectivity has expanded beyond traditional computers and mobile phones to encompass other cyber-physical or smart systems. This introduces a new paradigm of threats, including remote exploitation of operational technology networks and systems, such as air defence and coastal surveillance networks, power grids, pipelines, air traffic control systems, port operation systems, railway signaling systems, satellites, industrial plants, and more. Based on the lessons learned, there is an urgent need to further strengthen the cyber resilience of critical national functions, business and industrial processes, and the underlying ICT infrastructure and systems. In the present review article, we review some globally accepted cybersecurity standards and frameworks like NIST CSF, ISO 27001, CRR Framework, CIS Control Framework, and SCF; and three popular cybersecurity maturity models, viz., CMMC, C2M2, and SCF-SP-CMM.

Authors :
Sandeep K. Shukla

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Madhusree Kole, Ashish K. Upadhyay, Ayush Sinha, Preet Sharma, Manas Sarkar, Sandeep Kumar Yadav and Sarang Raj Chourasia
C3iHub, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Price: 251

Determinants of Cyber Expense: Exploratory Evidence from Indian Firms

By: Saibal Ghosh

Page No : 43-52

Cyber challenges have come to the forefront in recent times. This raises the question as to what are the factors driving cyberspending by firms. To inform this debate, we utilize data on Indian firms for the year 2023. Using two definitions of cyber – narrow and broad - we find that size, age, liquid assets, profitability and leverage are the key drivers of cyber expense. These findings hold after accounting for ownership and industry level controls. Viewed from this standpoint, the study sheds light on the drivers of cybersecurity spending in manufacturing and services firms.

Author :
Saibal Ghosh
Expert (Adviser), Qatar Central Bank, Doha, Qatar.


Price: 251

Industry 4.0 and Cyber Security in Engineering Industry Cluster

By: E. Bhaskaran

Page No : 53-67

Industry 6.0 is the convergence of various ideas, generating in the minds of leaders, scientists, predicators, and researchers. Industry 6.0 is one step further than Industry 4.0 and 5.0; every operation would be controlled by the human mind and performed by automated robots by covering all planetary boundaries. The objective of this study is to ascertain productivity increase due to the implementation of Industry 4.0 and cybersecurity; to study the implementation of Industry 4.0 and cybersecurity using business analytics techniques and to give suggestions on increasing productivity by cost minimization and profit maximization to the Tirupattur Engineering Cluster (TEC) in the Tirupattur district of Tamil Nadu. The methodology consists of the collection of primary and secondary data from TEC and the Industrial Training Institute, Vaniyambadi. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis and structural equation modelling. The study found that the TEC enterprises have been coordinating with each other to implement Industry 4.0 and cybersecurity, as well as Industry 5.0 and Industry 6.0 to compete in the global market, thereby reducing the cost of production and increasing productivity, turnover and profit.

Author :
E. Bhaskaran

General Manager-Grade-I / Joint Director (Engi neering), Depart ment of Industries and Commerce, Government of Tamil Nadu, Tirupattur, Tamil Nadu, India.


Price: 251

Empowering Women for Cybersecurity Industry and Cybersecurity for Women Empowerment: Case of India

By: Seema Singh

Page No : 68-77

Despite taking initiatives for the cybersecurity industry, India’s rank in the MIT Cyber Defence Index 2022-23 is low. In this background, the paper discusses three distinct aspects, i.e., women in the cybersecurity industry, cybersecurity for women engaged in the micro sector, and cybercrime against women and suggests a framework with the corporate sector at its centre for improving the situation.

Author :
Seema Singh
Professor of Economics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.


Price: 251

Cryptocurrency Trading, Investment Behaviour, Regulatory Challenges and Cybersecurity Issues amongst Rajasthan’s Youth

By: Anurodh Godha

Page No : 78-87

Understanding the dynamics of cryptocurrency trading, investment behaviour, regulatory challenges, and cybersecurity concerns among the youth in Rajasthan is crucial for developing informed policies and strategies to support and safeguard their participation in this rapidly evolving digital economy. The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that influence the use of cryptocurrencies among young people in the Indian state of Rajasthan by looking at their trading habits, investment habits, cybersecurity, and knowledge of relevant regulations. To better understand people’s beliefs and habits about cryptocurrencies, a survey was conducted with a sample size of 245. This study analysed responses using quantitative and descriptive statistics to help researchers spot patterns and draw conclusions. The results show that young people in Rajasthan engage in various trading and investment behaviours using cryptocurrencies, highlighting the necessity for personalized educational and regulatory methods. Financial and educational resources were found to have a substantial impact on the adoption of cryptocurrency, in another finding from the study. The respondents’ awareness of the regulatory difficulties related with cryptocurrency is particularly noteworthy. It was also discovered that there is a substantial correlation between investors’ estimates of the potential advantages, cybersecurity and hazards of bitcoin investments. In sum, this study adds to our understanding of the state of the bitcoin market among young people in Rajasthan and should prove useful to policymakers, educators, and industry players. This research highlights the significance of encouraging a responsible and well-informed approach to cryptocurrency use and regulation in the region as cryptocurrencies continue to grow in popularity.

Author :
Anurodh Godha

Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, School of Commerce and Management, Director, Regional Centre, Ajmer, Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota, Rajasthan, India.


Price: 251

Need Assessment for Livelihood of the Households in a Selected Village in Uttar Pradesh: Some Observations

By: Bhaskar Majumder

Page No : 88-95

The purpose of this paper was to examine the types of needs that the households of the selected village could fulfil and could expect to fulfil. The objectives of the paper were to examine the means of livelihood of the households, what private and public needs they could fulfil, the culture and caste questions in the village that helped or hindered their access to utilities. The households lived to fulfil subsistence needs that were mainly food-based. It is the responsibility of the Government of Uttar Pradesh to provide them with public utilities. The households ensure their need-based private utilities.

Author :
Bhaskar Majumder
Professor (Retired), G. B. Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Price: 251

Federalism and Interstate Water Disputes in India: A Study of the River Mahanadi

By: Seema Mallik , Bishnupriya Panda

Page No : 96-107

Indian federalism is unique in spirit and her practice of cooperative federalism has placed her as a successful democratic state in the world today. However, there are several lacunas in her federalism with respect to the discourse on water disputes, which need to be addressed. Although there are various constitutional provisions apart from the statutory laws and obligations on the part of the centre and the states, there is a significant growth in water dispute cases in the country. The Mahanadi river water dispute between the states of Odisha and Chhattisgarh is one such case. This paper explores the significant issues in this dispute while drawing insights from similar cases across the country. It also suggests a way forward in resolving river water disputes, given the importance of river water, which is becoming a scarce commodity requiring just and fair management.

Authors :
Bishnupriya Panda

Bishnupriya Panda is a Doctoral Scholar in the Department of Political Science, Utkal University and is also a faculty in the Department of Political Science, Gopabandhu Science College, Athgarh, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Seema Mallik
Seema Mallik is faculty in the Department of Political Science, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.


Price: 251