Productivity : A Quarterly Journal of The National Productivity Council

Published in Association with National Productivity Council

Current Volume: 64 (2023-2024 )

ISSN: 0032-9924

e-ISSN: 0976-3902

Periodicity: Quarterly

Month(s) of Publication: June, September, December & March

Subject: Economics

DOI: 10.32381/PROD


Productivity is the principal journal of the National Productivity Council of India. The Journal aims at disseminating information on concepts of and data on productivity and its growth in India and elsewhere. It also aims at disseminating knowledge on techniques and methods of productivity improvement through effective management of all types of resources. Thus contribution from a large spectrum of disciplines are accepted for publication.Only those manuscripts that present original results will be accepted of the publication in the Journal.The managerial/policy implications of the study should be highlighted separately towards the end of the paper.

Genamics (Journalseek)
Indian Citation Index


Rajesh Sund

National Productivity Council, Utpadakta Bhawan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.

Editorial consultant
Payal Kumar

Editorial Board
S. Gopalakrishnan

Abad Ahmed

N.M. Barot

Vinay Bharat Ram

Ram K. Iyengar

T.S. Papola

N.S. Randhawa

Gourav Vallabh

Volume 64 Issue 3 , (Oct-2023 to Dec-2023)

Stress, Causes, Consequences and its Management

By: Shayana Deb , Sibnath Deb , Anjali Gireesan

Page No : 221-230

Stress is a normal phenomenon in everyone’s life. Optimal performance in any task requires minimal stress, while overstress adversely impacts performance. Technological advancements, overpopulation, urbanisation and modernisation constitute additional burden leading to stress. Nevertheless, the effect of stress varies from individual to individual. People experience stress at different points of time for different reasons. The broad objective of this article is to provide an overview of stress, its major causes and its impact. At the end, the article discusses possible remedial measures.

Authors :
Shayana Deb : Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
Sibnath Deb : Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University (A Central University), Puducherry, India.
Anjali Gireesan : DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Government of India.


Price: 251

Exploring the Relationship between Life Satisfaction, Coping with Stress and Work Behaviour

By: Sanjib Biswas , Satirtha Dawn , Krishna Roy

Page No : 231-248

The present work endeavours to delve into the relationship between life satisfaction, coping behaviour for stress, and innovative work behaviour. To do so, the current work utilizes a q-rung orthopair fuzzy (q-ROF) based group decision making framework. The paper uses the framework to measure three aspects, life satisfaction (LS), stress coping (SC) and work behaviour (WB) from the past studies. A questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale was administered to the target respondents. For each respondent, the responses received from each respondent were aggregated using the q-ROF Einstein weighted average (q-ROFEWA) as the aggregation operator (AO). The relationships were then examined using the Mann Whitney U test. It was observed that LS has a positive relationship with SC, which also maintains a positive linkage with WB. The present paper provides useful insights for talent management by providing a framework for the assessment of productivity while keeping track of mental health.

Authors :
Sanjib Biswas : Decision Sciences & Operations Management, Calcutta Business School, Bishnupur, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.
Satirtha Dawn : Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal, India.
Krishna Roy : Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal, India


Price: 251

Stress Management amongst Shift Workers in India

By: B. K. Cyndia , K. S. Shoba Jasmin

Page No : 249-260

Shift work stands as an indispensable pillar of contemporary society, facilitating ceaseless operations across an array of industries. However, stress is a significant, formidable challenge associated with shift work, which has extensive repercussions on the wellbeing of shift operatives. This study is an exploration of stress relief in the specific context of shift employment. It lays particular emphasis on the insights from studies that cast light on the intricate interplay of shift work, stress, and the ensuing ramifications for health. In this context, the present study is aimed at discussing the stress management strategies used by shift workers in India. The study uses primary data collected from 60 sample respondents through convenient sampling using a structured questionnaire. The findings reveal that stress management strategies for shift workers is an area that presents opportunities to determine some ways to manage stress not only for shift workers but for the worker population in general.

Authors :
B. K. Cyndia : Saveetha School of Law, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, India.
K. S. Shoba Jasmin : Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Saveetha School of Law, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, India.


Price: 251

Time and Stress Management for Better Productivity

By: C. Vijai

Page No : 261-269

Time management involves the art of prioritizing tasks, allocating resources wisely, and ensuring that crucial activities receive the attention they deserve. With numerous commitments vying for attention, mastering time management techniques can help individuals streamline their efforts, minimize wasted time, and achieve their goals more effectively. Concurrently, stress management is crucial for maintaining mental and emotional equilibrium in the face of mounting pressures. Effectively managing stress allows individuals to remain focused, resilient, and better equipped to handle challenges. This paper explores various stress management strategies.

Author :
C. Vijai : Associate Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Administration, Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India.


Price: 251

Stress Management on Industrial Clusters in India

By: E. Bhaskaran

Page No : 270-287

Micro & Small Enterprises - Cluster Development Programme (MSECDP) is one of the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MoMSME) for the creation of common facility centres and infrastructure development. Various Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were served in past few years, including Goal 8, ‘Decent Work and Economic Growth’ and Goal 9, ‘Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure’. MSMEs are provided grants for the setting up of state-of-the-art machines and equipment, thus helping them bring innovation to their work. The objective of this paper is to study the state-wise performance of MSMEs and MSME clusters in India and to compare MSME performance; and various stress management techniques adopted by the clusters. Secondary data was collected from the Udayam Registration, Ministry of MSME, Government of India, and various cluster websites, and analysed using various analytical tools like diagnostic analysis, descriptive analysis, predictive analysis, inferential analysis, prescriptive analysis and decision analytics. Input variables considered were no. of clusters, no. of working enterprises, employment generated, value of plant and machinery in INR crore, market value of fixed assets in INR crore and gross value of fixed assets in INR crore. The data was compared with variables like Common Facility Centre approved (CFCa), CFC in progress (CFCp), CFC Completed (CFCc), Infrastructure Development approved (IDa), Infrastructure Development in progress (IDp), Infrastructure Development Completed (IDc) and output variables like Total CFC and ID (CFC_ID_T) and No. of Clusters (Cn). The findings indicate that in order to achieve SDGs 8 and 9, there is need for more decent work, economic growth, industry, innovation, and infrastructure in the industrial clusters.

Author :
E. Bhaskaran : Joint Director (Engineering)/General Manager, District Industries Centre (DIC), Department of Industries and Commerce, Government of Tamil Nadu, India.


Price: 251

A Study of Stress among Women Employees in the Banking Sector with Special Reference to Jaipur City

By: Salim Khan , Ekta , Meena

Page No : 288-297

Indian women perform many roles, ranging from homemaker to leader. Women today have developed skills and abilities as a result of being to their male partners and being homemakers. They have preserved the traditional work culture of family while also taking on new jobs. The banking industry is currently expanding at such a rapid rate that women must work longer hours to support their lifestyles and meet their basic needs. Despite the career advancement, women feel overloaded by work. According to the findings from this investigation, a significant number of bankers are under a lot of stress as a result of their jobs. While the causes of stress include long shifts, unsuitable reward structures, lack of worker self-governance, authoritative organizational culture, job struggle, among others, the most important reason is that management does not provide employees with enough support. Employees can see that there is a lot of pressure on them in different ways. Even though there may be no immediate signs, stress can cause serious health problems, like depression, heart problems, diabetes, and other conditions. Bankers’ health and relationships at home are also affected because most employees cannot spend time with their families or at home. Nevertheless, bankers’ levels of stress can be significantly reduced with effective management strategies.

Authors :
Salim Khan : Former Head and Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, St. Xavier’s College, Jaipur, India.
Ekta : Former Head and Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, St. Xavier’s College, Jaipur, India.
Meena : Head and Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, St. Xavier’s College, Jaipur, India


Price: 251

Financing the Cooperatives: The Integrated Approach

By: Sundeep Kumar Nayak , Ayasakanta Mohanty , P. K. Swain

Page No : 298-307

The paper deals with the integrated single-window finance approach for cooperative businesses and the statutory institution for development finance set up by the Government of India in 1963 under an Act of the Parliament. The institution, National Cooperative Development Corporation, an entity with net-zero NPA, has explosively expanded its lending footprint across geographies and sectors since 2015. The key strategies adopted by the institution are covered in the discussion.

Authors :
Sundeep Kumar Nayak : PhD Scholar, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of IBCS, SoA Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Ayasakanta Mohanty : Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of IBCS, SoA Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
P. K. Swain : Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of IBCS, SoA Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.


Price: 251

An Analysis of Financial Inclusion of India

By: Charan Singh , Ayanendu Sanyal

Page No : 309-320

Financial inclusion (FI) means the assurance that all individuals, especially those who are marginalised, and businesses have easy and economical access to financial products and services. This includes financial services like accounts in financial institutions, facility for institutionalised credit, insurance, and other financial products that empower an individual to participate in the economy. The concept of FI has acquired greater relevance in the recent years, as access to financial services is considered as a major stimulant of economic growth and poverty reduction. Individuals who are unable to access financial services, may be excluded from the formal financial system, leaving them vulnerable to financial shocks. This article argues that since 2014, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Government of India (GoI) have formulated strategies to boost FI and explains how it helped India in surviving financial shock during the pandemic, one of the greatest crises the world has seen. It also concludes that more work is needed in this area, which is where policy makers should focus on.

Authors :
Charan Singh : CEO, EGROW Foundation, Noida, India.
Ayanendu Sanyal : Expert (Honorary), EGROW Foundation, Noida, India


Price: 251

Sustainability in Indian MSMEs: Literature Review and Practical Implications

By: Subrata Mitra

Page No : 321-335

Sustainability or sustainable development has become an important issue in the context of climate change and growing social inequity. While large companies are held responsible for their environmental and social obligations, the collective responsibility of small companies, called Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises or MSMEs, cannot be ignored. MSMEs are an important part of a country’s economy, required generating employment and contributing to the national income, however they also have a significant carbon footprint, and being located mostly in rural and remote areas, have important social obligations to fulfil. This paper presents a review of literature on sustainability in Indian MSMEs. Based on the literature review, the paper identifies the barriers to and drivers of the implementation of sustainable practices in MSMEs. Survey results on the effects of implementing sustainable practices on firms’ economic, environmental and social performance are also reviewed. Based on the summary of the literature review, the paper draws important managerial insights and practical implications for owners/managers of MSMEs, governments/regulatory bodies and industry associations/chambers of commerce in order to ease and facilitate the implementation of sustainable practices. The paper concludes with some directions for future research on sustainability in MSMEs.

Author :
Subrata Mitra : Professor of Operations Management, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkata, India.


Price: 251

Post-MFA Analysis of Indian Textile Exports

By: Greeshma Manoj , S Muraleedharan

Page No : 336-344

The Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA), which had governed the global textile and apparel trade was replaced by the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) on January 1, 2005. The removal of quota restrictions has brought comparative advantage back to significant surplus economies such as China and India, and has also provided significant opportunities as well as challenges to the developing economies. Compared to its competitors, the Indian textile industry enjoys certain advantages, but at the same time, the industry also faces numerous challenges in the changed trade scenario. In this context, the present study analyses the performance of the Indian textile industry in terms of its export performance changes in the composition and destination of textile exports in the post-MFA period. The analysis period is from 1990-91 to 2020-21, divided into a transition period (1990-2004) and a post-MFA period (2005-2020). The annual growth of textile exports from India registered fluctuations both during the transition and post-MFA regime. The mean values of the major subsectors of Indian textiles, viz, readymade garments, cotton textiles, and manmade textiles were higher in the post-MFA than during the transition period. The regression results show improved performance in the exports of textiles, readymade garments, cotton textiles, and manmade textiles in the post-MFA period.

Authors :
Greeshma Manoj : Associate Professor, Department of Economics, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore.
S Muraleedharan : Associate Professor (Retired), Visiting Faculty, KNRC, MG University, Kottayam, Centre for Budget Studies, CUSAT


Price: 251