Volume 38 (2018) Issue 1 , (January-2018 to June-2018)
Big Data - Small Area : Impact on Geography
by Prithvish Nag
Understanding City Floods
by H Ramachandran and A Kalaiarasan
This study with empirical evidence attempts to illustrate the factors causing floods in Chennai, Tamil Nadu during December 2015 and January 2016. The factors that caused such large scale floods are not unique to Chennai, but apply to most city floods, whether in Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad or other large cities. The study, thus, argues, beside the unprecedented rain, encroachment of river beds and water bodies as the main factors that contribute to the floods. The study further maps the processes such as the regulatory changes in town planning and zoning violations that led such encroachment. The authors point out that many states have no regulations relating to construction activities along the river courses. The study also offers policy measures both preventive and curative to deal with city floods in India.
Urbanization and Groundwater Supply in Barddhaman Municipality, Barddhaman, West Bengal
by Mahamaya Laha
Land Degradation indicates the destruction and decline of global ecosystem’s health. The study primarily related to status of land degradation of Silabati River basin which lies in eastern Chotanagpur. The present river basin is the representative of an area between Archean geology dominated in western parts of Chotanagpur plateau and recent alluvial deposited Ganga river basin in east. After originating in Chotanagpur plateau, Silabati River flows through plateau fringe of undulating surface. It flows through the western ‘Rarh’1 areas of West Bengal. This is also one of the intense agriculture dependent population area of eastern India. Land degradation status is observed by overlaying the different physical (geomorphology, soil, geology etc.) as well as anthropogenic (LULC change, population pressure, forest cover, irrigation etc.) components. All of the factors have weightage with a certain value in relation the vulnerability of the land degradation. After that different factors weightage rasters have multiplied by raster calculator. The multiplied raster helps to identify different land degradation classes with different vulnerability. The upper course of basin which is characterised by undulating topography, less fertile soil, high water erosion is more vulnerable to degradation. Whereas, anthropogenic factors related land degradation dominates lower reaches.
Land Degradation in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau: A Study of The Silabati River Basin
by Avijit Mahala and Padmini Pani
Barddhaman, the district headquarters of Barddhaman district, West Bengal was once developed by Burdwan Rajas amidst the surrounding fertile agricultural tract as an agricultural market town. But now its growing service sector invites bulk of migrants and commuters to the town. The Municipality supplies 56 lakh litres of groundwater per day, but it’s inadequate to meet the need of 3 lakh inhabitants and lakhs of floating population to the town daily. Educational facilities of university and colleges, medical facilities of hospitals and nursing homes, marketing facilities and above all excellent transport facility of the town by rail and road network connecting the rural hinterland and urban- industrial regions of Kolkata, Asansol and Durgapur enlure people of surrounding districts to migrate here. So vertical expansion of the town and rising demands for water from domestic and commercial sectors are supposed to put pressure on the town’s water resource and this may cause water crisis in the town in future.
Geospatial Analysis of Health Facilities in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Dehradun City
by Upendra Bhai Patel and B.L. Teli
Human resource is always of immense support for a developing country like India. Even though our country is saturated with 121 crore population, not many are overlooking the safer life of an individual, and GIS is as an advanced decision making tool, could help in better need based planning for the healthcare services that would result in high impact interventions not just at the national level but also at the district and block levels. This study will be pointed out that the knowledge gap needs to be addressed which would mean GIS sensitization of management till the panchayat level and capacity building to ensure availability of technical manpower.
Nowadays, time is considered as valuable as gold. Once time is used sensibly, access to a lot of opportunities is possible. People, who want to go to Hospitals/Clinics in different places as patient, may need to have some information about those places (Hospitals/Clinics). Determining the shortest routes to the healthcare places from their accommodations will be both timesaving and economical. Geographical Information System (GIS) Tech-nologies provide us with these possibilities. But transportation of a patient to hospital in emergency seems quite simple but in reality it is pretty difficult during peak hours. A significant operation for the handling of emergency incidents is the routing of responding vehicles to incident sites and then to the closest appropriate hospitals. GIS technology can support emergency responders to provide efficient response in quick response time through solving the steering problems.
The study was carried out on Dehradun city, where there are an optimum healthcare facilities with a large inflow of men/women and tourist both foreign and domestic. GIS Database was created using Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV satellite data and ancillary information. GIS based Network analysis was carried out by taking advantages of GIS possibilities for healthcare facilities. Shortest path in terms of time and length were carried out using Network Analyst of ArcGIS. ArcGIS Server was used for configuring, publishing and web services application. Assessment of wards which lack in higher order hospitals was carried out.
Role of Geography in Sustenance of Pre-Historic Settlements in Karnataka, India
by Hema Thakur
Ancient settlements beginning from pre-historic period have been found spread nearly all over Karnataka. The geographical factors and environmental setting help in understanding the settlement pattern and resource base which may have supported human settlements through centuries. The distribution and exploitation of geographical resources have influenced human colonies and determined the way in which they have concentrated in “zones” and “sub-zones” from the neolithic-chalcolithic period, through the megalithic ultimately leading to the establishment of early historic settlements. In this paper human settlements and the contribution of geographical factors have been discussed. The territory of Karnataka where Kannada was spoken as a common language was roughly fixed by the twelfth century. Karnataka has borders with more than one state. The state of Maharashtra adjoins northern Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh and east Karnataka have a common border. Though these neighbouring states have some common features with Karnataka, it is the rivers which bring them close to each other as some of the important rivers originate in adjoining states and flow in Karnataka or vice-versa. The drainage of Karnataka is dependent on three main rivers - Krishna on the north, the Kaveri on the south, the two Pennars (North Pennar and the South Pennar) and the Palar on the east. Rivers have always been very crucial and they have supported human habitation since pre-historic period. Karnataka has also been endowed with minerals and useful rocks. These natural resources encouraged human habitation and this is made evident by the archaeological remains including structures which have been found nearly all over Karnataka and for almost all the historical periods.
Growth Performance of Agriculture in The Tribal Dominated Dungarpur District of Rajasthan
by Devendra Singh Chouhan
The agriculture sector of the tribal dominated district of Dungarpur is passing through a dynamic phase in the recent era of development. It provides 77% of employment opportunities for the working population of the district. The present paper extensively evaluates the performance and progress of the district agriculture since 1981-82. Besides comparing facts and figures, we also examined the sources of agricultural growth and disparity of Dungarpur district. The Paper also finds out determinates of agriculture production by using regression and verifies the result of decomposition of agricultural growth. This paper covered the period during 1981-82, 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12. In this paper, changes in the whole scenario of district agriculture over the period of time and sources of agricultural growth by cropping pattern, output growth, input pattern, cropping intensity, variation of agriculture growth and factors affecting agriculture development have been discussed.
The Effect of University-Industry Linkages and their Geographical Proximity to the Growth of Software Industry in India
by Akshaya Kapoor
In future, the growth of software industry in India will depend on the way it handles its university-industry linkages. For India to move from an outsourcing destination, with respect to the software industry, to becoming a strong leader in the world, these linkages will play a key role. This paper tends to examine how far this prediction is true if it is. This paper analyze the effect of geographical proximity to relationship between universities and software firms and also throw some light on the state of University-Industry linkages in India. This paper then suggests that University-Industry linkages have a positive impact on software industry and there exists a positive correlation between geographical proximity and the efficacy of these linkages. In the end, this paper makes the case that building technical institutes or universities within the software parks or clusters can greatly enhance the innovation capacity of the software industry, this, in turn, can improve the industry’s growth and development.
Estimation of Noise Pollution In The Hill Town Srinagar (Uttarakhand) : A Geographical Study
by Mohan Panwar and Ms. Sristi Thapliyal
Mountain towns are known for tourism and ecotourism. These towns have a fragile environment as they suffer from a lot of population pressure. Any kind of disturbance in these areas has an adverse effect on the people. Srinagar is a mountain town falling in the pilgrimage route. Due to its central location in the pilgrimage route during the yatra season, the tourist flow increases and with the result the local people as well as the tourists suffer from the negative impacts of noise pollution. Noise pollution affects the environment as well as the health of people too. The present study is an attempt to estimate the traffic noise pollution in Srinagar town and also suggests preventive measures. Noise pollution has become a nuisance in today’s urban areas. Traffic noise is the biggest source of noise pollution. Even though the Central Pollution Control Board has come out with strict regulations, people still suffer from this problem.
Spatial Patterns of Crop Concentration and Diversification: Its Impacts on Food Security in Chhattisgarh
by Anusuiya Baghel, Sk Nasib Ahmad and Girdhar Sahu
Spatial pattern of crop concentration and diversification in Chhattisgarh have been studied in the paper. Crop concentration index and diversification index are measured using Bhatia’s (1956) method. All 27 districts have been included to explain the spatial pattern of crop concentration and diversification scenario of Chhattisgarh. The crops having more than 1.8 % area to the total crops are considered for crop concentration index. In this way, eight crops are included for the study and paddy holds first rank in all the districts of Chhattisgarh. Rest of the five crops and two crops hold second and third ranks respectively. In this way, eight crops are first, second and third ranking crops. Maximum paddy concentration has been found in eastern part of middle Chhattisgarh plain (Mahanadi Sheonath doab, trans Mahanadi track and Raipur upland) where paddy concentration index is more than 1.1. Gram concentration has been observed in few districts of Chhattisgarh and this concentration (above 1) is noticed in western Maikal range is characterized by black soil. The spatial pattern of teora concentration is like the paddy concentration. High teora concentration is found in the plain of central Chhattisgarh. High concentration of Soyabean and wheat have also been found in western Maikal region. Maize and urad concentrations are high in Surguja Raigarh hight land of north and Bastar plateau of south in Chhattisgarh where paddy concentration is least. These north and southern regions of Chhattisgarh are characterized by rough terrain. Kodo concentration is high in those areas where paddy cultivation is difficult. The spatial pattern of kodo concentration is just like the opposite of paddy concentration. Maximum kodo concentration has been found in Dantewada district having the index of 11. Insecurity has been found in one-third districts of this state in respect of food grains.
Neighbourhood Environment: Assessing and Mapping of Vulnerable Neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City for Planning
by Saleha Jamal and Uzma Ajmal
Vulnerability has arisen as a complex theme of research in environmental studies and assessing vulnerability has become a real concern in developing countries. A neighbourhood has been determined as an essential physical unit in planning because of its environmental comprehensiveness. An adequate environment with its appropriate plans and services is believed to cherish a healthier society, which can be achieved through identification of vulnerable neighbourhood environment and its proper planning. Understanding neigh-bourhood environmental problems and identifying vulnerable units can play an important role in environmental improvement and comprehensive planning at local levels. In the present study an attempt has been made to study neighbourhood environmental problems in different neighbourhoods in order to identify and map vulnerable neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City. Important factors that have contributed to rise of environmental vulnerability (development of slums to high risk and hazardous areas, lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, overcrowding, lack of infrastructure facilities etc.) were taken under consideration. For identification of vulnerable neigh-bourhoods in Azamgarh City, different wards are grouped into different neighbourhoods on the basis of income, population and density. Neighbour-hood Environmental conditions of each neighbourhood such as drainage conditions, water logging, accumulation of solid waste, water supply and quality, overcrowding, air and noise pollution etc. has been assessed for the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City. Finally suggestions have been provided for proper planning.
Climate Change And Natural Resources: A Study Of Indian Desert -Author : H.S. Sharma -- Reviewed by Prof. M.N. Koul
Regional Planning and Development: Concepts, Theories and Techniques. H. S. Gupta -- Reviewed by Surya Kant