SMALL AND INTERMEDIATE TOWNS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: A CASE OF RAEBARELI, SULTANPUR AND PRATAPGARH DISTRICTS OF UTTAR PRADESH
by H.N. Misra & Ashutosh Mishra
The paper is based on the hypothesis that small and intermediate towns present alternative strategy to regional development process as against rural-agricultural growth oriented (bottom-up) approach and urban-industrial growth oriented (top-down) approach. Keeping this in view, the towns located in Raebareli, Sultanpur and Pratapgarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have been studied in detail by analyzing their locational characteristics, demographic features, hierarchical structure and spatial configurations of development around them. In view of the fact that these towns play the critical role in accelerating the pace of development, there is a need to support them by promoting infrastructure within the frame of potentials that they possess. The study points out that in addition to existing towns, there are several subaltern settlements, which are likely to join the fabric of small and intermediate towns. These settlements need to be taken care of in order that the dream project of smart cities becomes a reality.
AN EVALUATION OF SUB-SURFACE WATER QUALITY AROUND BHARUCH-SURAT INDUSTRIAL REGION, GUJARAT, INDIA
by Somnath Saha, Sukanta Kumar Saha, Tathagata Ghosh and Rolee Kanchan
Water is an important element in everyday life. The basic property of water (H2O) is static but with the inclusion of different physico-chemical elements, its quality varies from time to time and place to place. The present paper is an attempt to evaluate the property of sub-surface water in Surat-Bharuch Industrial Region of Gujarat, India. 155 sites were selected for the analysis and spatial pattern of physico-chemical parameters like EC, pH, temperature, calcium, sodium, potassium, lithium, iron, fluoride, copper and cadmium were analysed. To understand the distribution pattern of data, measures of central tendency, dispersion and skewness were applied. High concentration of sodium was observed in the northern part of the region while the level of pH was normal in the region. Lithium concentration was high throughout the area except for the south-eastern region. Other physical parameters like EC and temperature and chemical parameters like potassium, fluoride and copper were found to be within the desirable range. Multiple correlation among the parameters showed most important and strong relation between EC – Lithium, EC-Calcium and EC-Sodium.
SOIL DEGRADATION AS LINKED TO URBANIZATION – A CASE STUDY OF THIRUVANANTHAPURAM DISTRICT OF KERALA
by Aneesh MR, Suresh S, and Mani K
Identifying changes in soil quality resulting from land use changes is essential to design sustainable land management plans and policies. The present study evaluates the effect of land use change particularly urbanization on soil degradation in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala by collecting and evaluating 20 soil samples representing four land uses namely forest, paddy, settlement with mixed trees and urban areas. The results were then incorporated into a soil degradation index which showed that soil degradation was significantly higher in urban areas compared to other land uses.
BANK LINE SHIFTING OF THE BHAGIRATHI-HUGLI RIVER USING RS, GIS IN AND AROUND PURBASTHALI BLOCKS, WEST BENGAL
by Manjari Sarkar (Basu)
The present study is attempted to focus on the flood plain of the Bhagirathi and moribund deltaic part of south- central areas of West Bengal, which is one of the most dynamic natural regions of the state. The study area is located in the eastern part of East Bardhaman district (Purbasthli I &II blocks). Channel shifting, siltation of channels, decaying of oxbow lakes palaeochannel, bank erosion are common geomorphic hazards in Bhagirathi- Hooghly flood plain of this area. The main focus of the study area is to identify the effect of river shifting during 100 years over this area. Objectives of this study include:- nature of river shifting, identification of fluvio- geomorphic features, and effect of river shifting over socio- economic condition of this region.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF WORKFORCE IN INDIA DURING 1981-2011
by M.B. Singh and Nitin Kumar Mishra
The present research paper examines the growth, structure and distribution of workforce engaged in different economic activities in India during 1981-2011. The objectives of this paper are to : (i) analyze the growth and structural change in workforce at national level; (ii) examine the spatial pattern of workforce at state /union territory level; (iii) probe the intensity of workforce; (iv) measure the shift in mean point location of workforce employed in various occupational categories; and (v) compute the future probable trend of workforce. The present study is largely based on secondary data. The data pertaining to population and workforce have been taken from 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011 censuses. The analysis reveals the following major trends in the workforce: growth in the total workers in India is showing a declining trend; the workforce participation rate is increasing; the proportion of main workers declined whereas the proportion of marginal workers increased; more than a half of the total workforce is still engaged in agricultural activities; agricultural labourers witnessed small increase due to shift from cultivation to this category; the proportion of household workers showed stagnation; whereas the contribution of females accounted for only 31.10 percent in total workers.
SCHEDULED CASTE POPULATION IN HARYANA (A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIALS)
by Surya Kant
The paper examines inter-caste differences in demographic characteristics, such as size, growth and distribution of scheduled caste (SC) population in Haryana, analyzing and interpreting secondary data available from the Census of India. In 2011, 5.1 million SCs living in Haryana made more than total population of Norway. Although there are 37 castes of the SCs, but three of these, in combine, subsume more than three-fourths of total such population in the state. The Chamars, the largest caste with 47.5 per cent in total, was the most widely distributed, making the first ranking caste in all but one district of the state. The Balmikis, the second largest SC caste, made the second ranking SC caste in ten of 21 districts in Haryana. However, the Mazhabis, the fifth ranking SC caste, was highly concentrated in Sirsa and Fatehabad districts, making the first ranking SC caste only in Sirsa district. The SCs in Haryana were though predominantly rural by residence but quite literate, aware, awakened and majority of their workers engaged in non-farm activities. During 1971-2011, the SC population in the state grew faster than the entire state population. The high growth rate of the Meghs and the Ods, the two relatively large sized SC castes, was a cause of concern, needing priority attention of the policy makers; the Meghs, being predominantly rural, agricultural and poorly literate, restricting awareness and knowledge, needing immediate attention.
CROP LAND SUITABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE IN MAHENDRAGARH DISTRICT, HARYANA
by Gulshan Mehra and Rajeshwari
Crop-land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieve optimum utilization of the available land resources for sustainable agricultural production. In this context, the present paper attempts to study the suitability of land for present crop selection in Mahendragarh district, Haryana. The ‘‘Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)’’ method, commonly used in land use suitability analysis, has been utilized in this study. For this, seven parameters which are identified as significant in growth of crop have been taken into account. These seven parameters are: slope, soil pH value, soil depth, rainfall, temperature, ground water depth and soil texture. In determining the weights of the parameters, experts opinions were consulted, and the agricultural land suitability map generated was divided into 4 categories according to the land suitability classification of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The analysis of suitable sites for different crops reveal that larger area of the district is suitable for growing mustard followed by guar, pearl millet, wheat and gram crops. An attempt has also been made to study the existing cropping pattern with the help of remote sensing data for both rabi and kharif seasons to assess whether the existing cropping pattern is sustainable given its geographical and other conditions.
LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION AND CHANGE ANALYSIS IN THE SOUTHERN FRINGE OF KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA BY SPATIO TEMPORAL REMOTE SENSING
by Sushobhan Majumda and Lakshmi Sivaramakrishnan
Understanding the change in land use and land cover pattern is very much crucial for the future planning and development of an area. In most of the metropolitan cities the rate of changes of land use and land cover in the peripheral areas is very rapid. Kolkata is one of the metropolitan cities in India which have experienced rapid changes of land use and land cover in recent decades. This study aims to find out the trends of land use and land cover change in the southern fringe of Kolkata Metropolitan Area in the last thirty five years. The objective of the study is to analyze the nature, trends and pattern of land use land cover changes between the years 1980 to 2015. Land cover types were classified through supervised classification using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. The land cover products were then validated and overlaid in post-classification comparison to detect the changes between the years 1980 to 2015. Four land use and land cover classes, namely built up area, vegetation, water body and fallow land has been identified. This study reveals that conversion of water bodies, vegetation and low lying areas to urban area has given birth to the unplanned growth of settlements and associated problems. These are the main negative outcomes associated with the rapid urban development of this region. As reliable and current data are lacking for micro level, the land use maps produced in this study will contribute to both the development of sustainable urban land use planning decisions and also for forecasting possible future urban nodes.
MULTI-DIMENSIONAL POVERTY AS A MENACE TO SOCIAL ECOLOGY: A MICRO LEVEL OBSERVATION
by Ajay Raj Mridu, and Anand Prasad Mishra
The problem of poverty is multi-dimensional in nature and its occurrence in society reveals various complexities in many ways. These multi-dimensional characteristics are more complex and acute in case of social ecology. The social formation as phenomenon on space has great significance in geographical studies which became a challenging task for poverty analysis in unequal societies. The multi layers in social hierarchy are mainly represented by caste system which has many faces in its social structure. Poverty in these social organizations has varying nature in its magnitude and extent. In this context, the prevalence of poverty with reference to social ecology has vital importance for understanding the major constraints of poverty in Indian society. The present paper is an attempt to incorporate the multiple dimensions of poverty that affect the social ecology in many ways. The paper highlights the relationship between multi-dimensional poverty and social ecology. The paper also attempts to establish conceptual linkages based on ground reality between the social ecology and poverty.
MISSING FEMALE CHILD IN HARYANA: AN SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS
by Suman Chauhan and Sunil Kumar
India is one of the few regions in the world where males are more than females. As per Census 2011, the developed states and union territories of India, particularly the north-western part, such as Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh and Delhi now have fewer than 900 girls per 1,000 boys out of the total population (2,53,53,081) of Haryana. The population in 0-6 years age group was 32,97,724 children and the sex ratio of this age group was 830 female children per 1000 male children, which was the lowest amongst all states of India. Moreover this low sex ratio is also exhibited in Haryana with regard to cultural and demographical characteristics such as higher fertility, higher mortality, more masculine sex ratio and low status of women. Areas with highly pronounced symptoms of female child deficit are identified as hot spots. The present research work examines the child sex ratio (CSR) (from birth to 6 years of age) in order to find out the missing female child in Haryana. The study investigates the female deficit epicenters (0-6 years) in Haryana. The secondary data have been collected from the census of India. The analysis has been made from simple statistical techniques, such as standard deviation and Karl Pearson correlation methods. Further the results were shown with the help of graphs and maps. The female deficit epicenters in the study region have been marked by contours on the map as suggested by Agnihotri, 2003. Further we have also traced the CSR’s behavior across two census i.e. 2001 and 2011.
RURAL – URBAN TRANSITION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE ON FUTURE URBANIZATION
by Shahab Fazal and Md. Kaikubad Ali
This paper aims at re-assessing the share of rural-urban population in India, reclassifying the large rural settlements qualifying census defined criteria for urban settlement. These large rural settlements, if the current trend of population growth continues, are subject to get classified as urban in the proceeding censuses. Using secondary data of 2001 and 2011 censuses, it analyzes the number, distribution and density among the large villages which hold one fourth of India’s rural population; and explores the resultant variation if these large villages were classified as urban. The study reveals that half of the Indian population lives in smaller towns and large villages having similar demographic and socio-economic characteristics. This will raise the share of urban population up to 44.17 per cent against census proclamation of 31.16 per cent in 2011. Drawing attention of the policy makers and planners, this paper suggests that targeting large villages and promoting them to urban category through channelizing developmental plans will improve economic and social wellbeing of the population.
REGIONAL VARIATION IN CEREAL AND PULSES PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTHERN RAJASTHAN : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
by Lalit Singh Jhala
Cereal and pulses provide significant nutritional and health benefits and are known to reduce severe non-communicable diseases. So increasing state population, cereals and pulses productivity will also increase. In Southern Rajasthan, 69.88 per cent area of the total cropped land is engaged in cereal cultivation and out of the total production, 69.43 per cent is contributed by the cereal production. So cereal productivity has a dominant role in total productivity in Southern Rajasthan. But only 10.19 per cent area of the total cropped land is engaged in pulses cultivation and out of the total production, 8.74 per cent is contributed by pulses production. However, compared to cereal, the growth rate of area and production of pulses is negligible. There exists a wide variability in their yield in different areas of the study region. This paper examines comparative studies in productivity of cereal and pulses and their affecting factors as irrigational facilities, use of HYV seeds and expenses on modern implements including tractorisation etc. among the factors which are the strongest force in promoting productivity. Productivity has been measured of each tehsil of the southern Rajasthan, between average of 1980-82 and 2010-12, and regression coefficients technique is used to examine the impact of factors on productivity.
THE VITALITY OF INDIA A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE. GOPAL KRISHA by Gopal Krishan
Reviewed by Prof. Krishna Mohan
INDIAN GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH : A SURVEY, AUTHORED by K. L. Narasimha Murty Reviewed by Dr. Subhash Anand
Big Data - Small Area : Impact on Geography
by Prithvish Nag
Understanding City Floods
by H Ramachandran and A Kalaiarasan
This study with empirical evidence attempts to illustrate the factors causing floods in Chennai, Tamil Nadu during December 2015 and January 2016. The factors that caused such large scale floods are not unique to Chennai, but apply to most city floods, whether in Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad or other large cities. The study, thus, argues, beside the unprecedented rain, encroachment of river beds and water bodies as the main factors that contribute to the floods. The study further maps the processes such as the regulatory changes in town planning and zoning violations that led such encroachment. The authors point out that many states have no regulations relating to construction activities along the river courses. The study also offers policy measures both preventive and curative to deal with city floods in India.
Urbanization and Groundwater Supply in Barddhaman Municipality, Barddhaman, West Bengal
by Mahamaya Laha
Land Degradation indicates the destruction and decline of global ecosystem’s health. The study primarily related to status of land degradation of Silabati River basin which lies in eastern Chotanagpur. The present river basin is the representative of an area between Archean geology dominated in western parts of Chotanagpur plateau and recent alluvial deposited Ganga river basin in east. After originating in Chotanagpur plateau, Silabati River flows through plateau fringe of undulating surface. It flows through the western ‘Rarh’1 areas of West Bengal. This is also one of the intense agriculture dependent population area of eastern India. Land degradation status is observed by overlaying the different physical (geomorphology, soil, geology etc.) as well as anthropogenic (LULC change, population pressure, forest cover, irrigation etc.) components. All of the factors have weightage with a certain value in relation the vulnerability of the land degradation. After that different factors weightage rasters have multiplied by raster calculator. The multiplied raster helps to identify different land degradation classes with different vulnerability. The upper course of basin which is characterised by undulating topography, less fertile soil, high water erosion is more vulnerable to degradation. Whereas, anthropogenic factors related land degradation dominates lower reaches.
Land Degradation in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau: A Study of The Silabati River Basin
by Avijit Mahala and Padmini Pani
Barddhaman, the district headquarters of Barddhaman district, West Bengal was once developed by Burdwan Rajas amidst the surrounding fertile agricultural tract as an agricultural market town. But now its growing service sector invites bulk of migrants and commuters to the town. The Municipality supplies 56 lakh litres of groundwater per day, but it’s inadequate to meet the need of 3 lakh inhabitants and lakhs of floating population to the town daily. Educational facilities of university and colleges, medical facilities of hospitals and nursing homes, marketing facilities and above all excellent transport facility of the town by rail and road network connecting the rural hinterland and urban- industrial regions of Kolkata, Asansol and Durgapur enlure people of surrounding districts to migrate here. So vertical expansion of the town and rising demands for water from domestic and commercial sectors are supposed to put pressure on the town’s water resource and this may cause water crisis in the town in future.
Geospatial Analysis of Health Facilities in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Dehradun City
by Upendra Bhai Patel and B.L. Teli
Human resource is always of immense support for a developing country like India. Even though our country is saturated with 121 crore population, not many are overlooking the safer life of an individual, and GIS is as an advanced decision making tool, could help in better need based planning for the healthcare services that would result in high impact interventions not just at the national level but also at the district and block levels. This study will be pointed out that the knowledge gap needs to be addressed which would mean GIS sensitization of management till the panchayat level and capacity building to ensure availability of technical manpower.
Nowadays, time is considered as valuable as gold. Once time is used sensibly, access to a lot of opportunities is possible. People, who want to go to Hospitals/Clinics in different places as patient, may need to have some information about those places (Hospitals/Clinics). Determining the shortest routes to the healthcare places from their accommodations will be both timesaving and economical. Geographical Information System (GIS) Tech-nologies provide us with these possibilities. But transportation of a patient to hospital in emergency seems quite simple but in reality it is pretty difficult during peak hours. A significant operation for the handling of emergency incidents is the routing of responding vehicles to incident sites and then to the closest appropriate hospitals. GIS technology can support emergency responders to provide efficient response in quick response time through solving the steering problems.
The study was carried out on Dehradun city, where there are an optimum healthcare facilities with a large inflow of men/women and tourist both foreign and domestic. GIS Database was created using Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV satellite data and ancillary information. GIS based Network analysis was carried out by taking advantages of GIS possibilities for healthcare facilities. Shortest path in terms of time and length were carried out using Network Analyst of ArcGIS. ArcGIS Server was used for configuring, publishing and web services application. Assessment of wards which lack in higher order hospitals was carried out.
Role of Geography in Sustenance of Pre-Historic Settlements in Karnataka, India
by Hema Thakur
Ancient settlements beginning from pre-historic period have been found spread nearly all over Karnataka. The geographical factors and environmental setting help in understanding the settlement pattern and resource base which may have supported human settlements through centuries. The distribution and exploitation of geographical resources have influenced human colonies and determined the way in which they have concentrated in “zones” and “sub-zones” from the neolithic-chalcolithic period, through the megalithic ultimately leading to the establishment of early historic settlements. In this paper human settlements and the contribution of geographical factors have been discussed. The territory of Karnataka where Kannada was spoken as a common language was roughly fixed by the twelfth century. Karnataka has borders with more than one state. The state of Maharashtra adjoins northern Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh and east Karnataka have a common border. Though these neighbouring states have some common features with Karnataka, it is the rivers which bring them close to each other as some of the important rivers originate in adjoining states and flow in Karnataka or vice-versa. The drainage of Karnataka is dependent on three main rivers - Krishna on the north, the Kaveri on the south, the two Pennars (North Pennar and the South Pennar) and the Palar on the east. Rivers have always been very crucial and they have supported human habitation since pre-historic period. Karnataka has also been endowed with minerals and useful rocks. These natural resources encouraged human habitation and this is made evident by the archaeological remains including structures which have been found nearly all over Karnataka and for almost all the historical periods.
Growth Performance of Agriculture in The Tribal Dominated Dungarpur District of Rajasthan
by Devendra Singh Chouhan
The agriculture sector of the tribal dominated district of Dungarpur is passing through a dynamic phase in the recent era of development. It provides 77% of employment opportunities for the working population of the district. The present paper extensively evaluates the performance and progress of the district agriculture since 1981-82. Besides comparing facts and figures, we also examined the sources of agricultural growth and disparity of Dungarpur district. The Paper also finds out determinates of agriculture production by using regression and verifies the result of decomposition of agricultural growth. This paper covered the period during 1981-82, 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12. In this paper, changes in the whole scenario of district agriculture over the period of time and sources of agricultural growth by cropping pattern, output growth, input pattern, cropping intensity, variation of agriculture growth and factors affecting agriculture development have been discussed.
The Effect of University-Industry Linkages and their Geographical Proximity to the Growth of Software Industry in India
by Akshaya Kapoor
In future, the growth of software industry in India will depend on the way it handles its university-industry linkages. For India to move from an outsourcing destination, with respect to the software industry, to becoming a strong leader in the world, these linkages will play a key role. This paper tends to examine how far this prediction is true if it is. This paper analyze the effect of geographical proximity to relationship between universities and software firms and also throw some light on the state of University-Industry linkages in India. This paper then suggests that University-Industry linkages have a positive impact on software industry and there exists a positive correlation between geographical proximity and the efficacy of these linkages. In the end, this paper makes the case that building technical institutes or universities within the software parks or clusters can greatly enhance the innovation capacity of the software industry, this, in turn, can improve the industry’s growth and development.
Estimation of Noise Pollution In The Hill Town Srinagar (Uttarakhand) : A Geographical Study
by Mohan Panwar and Ms. Sristi Thapliyal
Mountain towns are known for tourism and ecotourism. These towns have a fragile environment as they suffer from a lot of population pressure. Any kind of disturbance in these areas has an adverse effect on the people. Srinagar is a mountain town falling in the pilgrimage route. Due to its central location in the pilgrimage route during the yatra season, the tourist flow increases and with the result the local people as well as the tourists suffer from the negative impacts of noise pollution. Noise pollution affects the environment as well as the health of people too. The present study is an attempt to estimate the traffic noise pollution in Srinagar town and also suggests preventive measures. Noise pollution has become a nuisance in today’s urban areas. Traffic noise is the biggest source of noise pollution. Even though the Central Pollution Control Board has come out with strict regulations, people still suffer from this problem.
Spatial Patterns of Crop Concentration and Diversification: Its Impacts on Food Security in Chhattisgarh
by Anusuiya Baghel, Sk Nasib Ahmad and Girdhar Sahu
Spatial pattern of crop concentration and diversification in Chhattisgarh have been studied in the paper. Crop concentration index and diversification index are measured using Bhatia’s (1956) method. All 27 districts have been included to explain the spatial pattern of crop concentration and diversification scenario of Chhattisgarh. The crops having more than 1.8 % area to the total crops are considered for crop concentration index. In this way, eight crops are included for the study and paddy holds first rank in all the districts of Chhattisgarh. Rest of the five crops and two crops hold second and third ranks respectively. In this way, eight crops are first, second and third ranking crops. Maximum paddy concentration has been found in eastern part of middle Chhattisgarh plain (Mahanadi Sheonath doab, trans Mahanadi track and Raipur upland) where paddy concentration index is more than 1.1. Gram concentration has been observed in few districts of Chhattisgarh and this concentration (above 1) is noticed in western Maikal range is characterized by black soil. The spatial pattern of teora concentration is like the paddy concentration. High teora concentration is found in the plain of central Chhattisgarh. High concentration of Soyabean and wheat have also been found in western Maikal region. Maize and urad concentrations are high in Surguja Raigarh hight land of north and Bastar plateau of south in Chhattisgarh where paddy concentration is least. These north and southern regions of Chhattisgarh are characterized by rough terrain. Kodo concentration is high in those areas where paddy cultivation is difficult. The spatial pattern of kodo concentration is just like the opposite of paddy concentration. Maximum kodo concentration has been found in Dantewada district having the index of 11. Insecurity has been found in one-third districts of this state in respect of food grains.
Neighbourhood Environment: Assessing and Mapping of Vulnerable Neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City for Planning
by Saleha Jamal and Uzma Ajmal
Vulnerability has arisen as a complex theme of research in environmental studies and assessing vulnerability has become a real concern in developing countries. A neighbourhood has been determined as an essential physical unit in planning because of its environmental comprehensiveness. An adequate environment with its appropriate plans and services is believed to cherish a healthier society, which can be achieved through identification of vulnerable neighbourhood environment and its proper planning. Understanding neigh-bourhood environmental problems and identifying vulnerable units can play an important role in environmental improvement and comprehensive planning at local levels. In the present study an attempt has been made to study neighbourhood environmental problems in different neighbourhoods in order to identify and map vulnerable neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City. Important factors that have contributed to rise of environmental vulnerability (development of slums to high risk and hazardous areas, lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, overcrowding, lack of infrastructure facilities etc.) were taken under consideration. For identification of vulnerable neigh-bourhoods in Azamgarh City, different wards are grouped into different neighbourhoods on the basis of income, population and density. Neighbour-hood Environmental conditions of each neighbourhood such as drainage conditions, water logging, accumulation of solid waste, water supply and quality, overcrowding, air and noise pollution etc. has been assessed for the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods of Azamgarh City. Finally suggestions have been provided for proper planning.
Climate Change And Natural Resources: A Study Of Indian Desert -Author : H.S. Sharma -- Reviewed by Prof. M.N. Koul
Regional Planning and Development: Concepts, Theories and Techniques. H. S. Gupta -- Reviewed by Surya Kant